Surface chemistry of HfI4 on Si(100)-(2 x 1) studied by core level photoelectron spectroscopy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


The chemistry Of HfI4 adsorbed on the Si(100)-(2x1) surface has been studied by core level photoelectron spectroscopy in ultra-high vacuum. Two stable surface intermediates are identified: HfI3 and HfI2, both of which remain upon heating to 690 K. The dissociation of HfI4 is accompanied by the formation of SiI. In addition, HfI4 is Observed up to 300 K. Complete desorption of iodine occurs in the temperature regime 690-780 K. Deposition of HfI4 at 870 K results in a layer consisting of metallic Hf, whereas deposition at 1120 K results in the formation of Hf silicide. The results indicate that the metallic Hf formed at 870 K is in the form of particles. Oxidation of this film by O-2 at low pressure does not result in complete Hf oxidation. This suggests that complete oxidation of Hf is a critical step when using HfI4 as precursor in atomic layer deposition. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


  • A. Sandell
  • P. G. Karlsson
  • J. H. Richter
  • Jakob Blomquist
  • Per Uvdal
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics


  • atomic layer deposition, synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy, crystal surfaces, low index single, silicon, hafnium oxide, chemisorption, hafnium iodide
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)917-923
JournalSurface Science
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2007
Publication categoryResearch

Bibliographic note

The information about affiliations in this record was updated in December 2015. The record was previously connected to the following departments: Chemical Physics (S) (011001060)