Swarm materialization through discrete, nonsequential additive fabrication

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingPaper in conference proceeding


Biological design is able to achieve remarkable functionality, resilience and adaptability without relying on centralized coordination or resource-intense materials. Agent based construction seeks to emulate these advantages, but the two common approaches - swarm robotics and fully virtual agent simulations - are held back by limitations that are difficult to overcome in isolation. Here we demonstrate initial steps towards the application of biological design principles, particularly the so called Bernard Machine. 3D printing is used to materialize the actions of virtual agents in a physical environment. Such an arena requires a shift from monolithic printing processes to interactive ones: assemblage printing. We demonstrate an alternative to conventional slicer-controlled printing that is discrete and to an extent nonsequential and which forms the foundation for assemblage printing. In its extension it allows for the exploration of a fully agent based construction process.


External organisations
  • Lund University
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Other Engineering and Technologies


  • Swarm construction, Agent-based construction, Discrete additive fabrication, Homeostatic design, Biological design, Additive manufacturing, Morphogenesis, Multi agent system, Biomimicry
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2019 IEEE 4th International Workshops on Foundations and Applications of Self* Systems (FAS*W)
Subtitle of host publication3rd International Workshop on Self-Organised Construction (SOCO)
PublisherIEEE Computer Society
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-7281-2406-3
ISBN (Print)978-1-7281-2407-0
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Aug 18
Publication categoryResearch
EventIEEE International Conference on Self-Adaptive and Self-Organizing Systems - Umeå, Sweden
Duration: 2019 Jun 162019 Jun 20
Conference number: 13


ConferenceIEEE International Conference on Self-Adaptive and Self-Organizing Systems
Abbreviated titleSASO 2019
Internet address