Synergism between GM-CSF and IFNgamma: Enhanced immunotherapy in mice with glioma.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common malignant primary brain tumor and also one of the most therapy-resistant tumors. Because of the dismal prognosis, various therapies modulating the immune system have been developed in experimental models. Previously, we have shown a 37-70% cure in a rat glioma model where rats were peripherally immunized with tumor cells producing IFN. On the basis of these results, we wanted to investigate whether a combination of GM-CSF and IFN could improve the therapeutic effect in a mouse glioma model, GL261 (GL-wt). Three biweekly intraperitoneal (i.p.) immunizations with irradiated GM-CSF-transduced GL261 cells (GL-GM) induced a 44% survival in mice with intracranial glioma. While treatment of GL-wt and GL-GM with IFN in vitro induced upregulation of MHC I and MHC II on the tumor cells, it could not enhance survival after immunization. However, immunizations with GL-GM combined with recombinant IFN at the immunization site synergistically enhanced survival with a cure rate of 88%. Tumors from mice receiving only 1 immunization on Day 10 after tumor inoculation were sectioned on Day 20 for analysis of leukocyte infiltration. Tumor volume was reduced and the infiltration of macrophages was denser in mice immunized with GL-GM combined with IFN compared with that of both wildtype and nonimmunized mice. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate a synergy between GM-CSF and IFN in experimental immunotherapy of tumors, by substantially increasing survival as well as inducing a potent anti-tumor response after only 1 postponed immunization.


Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Cancer and Oncology
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)75-80
JournalInternational Journal of Cancer
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2007
Publication categoryResearch

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Enell Smith, K., 2008, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University. 112 p.

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