Systemically administered anti-TNF therapy ameliorates functional outcomes after focal cerebral ischemia

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Background: The innate immune system contributes to the outcome after stroke, where neuroinflammation and post-stroke systemic immune depression are central features. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF), which exists in both a transmembrane (tm) and soluble (sol) form, is known to sustain complex inflammatory responses associated with stroke. We tested the effect of systemically blocking only solTNF versus blocking both tmTNF and solTNF on infarct volume, functional outcome and inflammation in focal cerebral ischemia. Methods: We used XPro1595 (a dominant-negative inhibitor of solTNF) and etanercept (which blocks both solTNF and tmTNF) to test the effect of systemic administration on infarct volume, functional recovery and inflammation after focal cerebral ischemia in mice. Functional recovery was evaluated after one, three and five days, and infarct volumes at six hours, 24 hours and five days after ischemia. Brain inflammation, liver acute phase response (APR), spleen and blood leukocyte profiles, along with plasma microvesicle analysis, were evaluated. Results: We found that both XPro1595 and etanercept significantly improved functional outcomes, altered microglial responses, and modified APR, spleen T cell and microvesicle numbers, but without affecting infarct volumes. Conclusions: Our data suggest that XPro1595 and etanercept improve functional outcome after focal cerebral ischemia by altering the peripheral immune response, changing blood and spleen cell populations and decreasing granulocyte infiltration into the brain. Blocking solTNF, using XPro1595, was just as efficient as blocking both solTNF and tmTNF using etanercept. Our findings may have implications for future treatments with anti-TNF drugs in TNF-dependent diseases.


  • Bettina Hjelm Clausen
  • Matilda Degn
  • Nellie Anne Martin
  • Yvonne Couch
  • Leena Karimi
  • Maria Ormhoj
  • Maria-Louise Bergholdt Mortensen
  • Hanne Birgit Gredal
  • Chris Gardiner
  • Ian I. L. Sargent
  • David E. Szymkowski
  • Géraldine Petit
  • Tomas Deierborg
  • Bente Finsen
  • Daniel Clive Anthony
  • Kate Lykke Lambertsen
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Neurology


  • SolTNF and tmTNF, Granulocytes, Behavior, Acute phase response, Microvesicle, Inflammation
Original languageEnglish
Article number203
JournalJournal of Neuroinflammation
Publication statusPublished - 2014
Publication categoryResearch

Bibliographic note

The information about affiliations in this record was updated in December 2015. The record was previously connected to the following departments: Neuronal Survival (013212041)

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