Targeting human fear of large carnivores — Many ideas but few known effects

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


This paper reviews the peer-reviewed scientific literature on interventions aimed to reduce human fear of large carnivores in human-large carnivore conflicts. Based on psychological theories, a wide definition of fear was adopted, including fear as an emotion, as a perception and as an attitude. Four major categories of interventions were identified: information and education, exposure to animal and habitat, collaboration and participation, and financial incentives. Each of these categories may have a potential to reduce fear responses. The scientific literature on the effect of interventions addressing human fear of large carnivores is scarce and partly contradictory, which makes it difficult for wildlife managers to rely on current research when designing appropriate interventions.


External organisations
  • Norwegian University of Life Sciences
  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
  • Mid Sweden University
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Psychology


  • Large carnivores, Human fear, Intervention, Literature review
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)261-269
Number of pages8
JournalBiological Conservation
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Jul 11
Publication categoryResearch