Tea and coffee consumption and risk of esophageal cancer: The European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition study

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Epidemiological data regarding tea and coffee consumption and risk of esophageal cancer (EC) is still inconclusive. We examined the association of tea and coffee consumption with EC risk among 442,143 men and women without cancer at baseline from 9 countries of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Tea and coffee intakes were recorded using country-specific validated dietary questionnaires. Cox regression models were used to analyze the relationships between tea and coffee intake and EC risk. During a mean follow-up of 11.1 years, 339 participants developed EC, of which 142 were esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and 174 were esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). In the multivariable models, no significant associations between tea (mostly black tea), and coffee intake and risk of EC, EAC and ESCC were observed. In stratified analyses, among men coffee consumption was inversely related to ESCC (HR for comparison of extreme tertiles 0.42, 95% CI 0.20-0.88; p-trend = 0.022), but not among women. In current smokers, a significant and inverse association was observed between ESCC risk and tea (HR 0.46, 95% CI 0.23-0.93; p-trend = 0.053) and coffee consumption (HR 0.37, 95% CI 0.19-0.73; p-trend = 0.011). However, no statistically significant findings were observed using the continuous variable (per 100 mL/d). These data did not show a significant association between tea and coffee consumption and EC, EAC and ESCC, although a decreased risk of ESCC among men and current smokers is suggested, but need to be confirmed in further prospective studies including more cases.


  • Raul Zamora-Ros
  • Leila Lujan-Barroso
  • H. B(as) Bueno-de-Mesquita
  • Vincent K. Dik
  • Heiner Boeing
  • Annika Steffen
  • Anne Tjonneland
  • Anja Olsen
  • Bodil Hammer Bech
  • Kim Overvad
  • Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault
  • Antoine Racine
  • Guy Fagherazzi
  • Tilman Kuhn
  • Verena Katzke
  • Antonia Trichopoulou
  • Pagona Lagiou
  • Dimitrios Trichopoulos
  • Rosario Tumino
  • Salvatore Panico
  • Paolo Vineis
  • Sara Grioni
  • Domenico Palli
  • Elisabete Weiderpass
  • Guri Skeie
  • Jose Maria Huerta
  • Maria-Jose Sanchez
  • Marcial Argueelles
  • Pilar Amiano
  • Eva Ardanaz
  • Lena Nilsson
  • Bengt Wallner
  • Bjorn Lindkvist
  • Petra H. M. Peeters
  • Timothy J. Key
  • Kay-Thee Khaw
  • Nicholas J. Wareham
  • Heinz Freisling
  • Magdalena Stepien
  • Pietro Ferrari
  • Marc J. Gunter
  • Neil Murphy
  • Elio Riboli
  • Carlos A. Gonzalez
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Cancer and Oncology


  • tea, coffee, esophageal cancer, smoking status, EPIC
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1470-1479
JournalInternational Journal of Cancer
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2014
Publication categoryResearch