The androgen receptor gene CAG repeat in relation to 4-year changes in androgen-sensitive endpoints in community-dwelling older European men

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Context: The androgen receptor (AR) gene exon 1 CAG repeat length has been proposed to be a determinant of between-individual variations in androgen action in target tissues, which might regulate phenotypic differences of human ageing. However, findings on its phenotypic effects are inconclusive. Objective: To assess whether the AR CAG repeat length is associated with longitudinal changes in endpoints that are influenced by testosterone (T) levels in middle-Aged and elderly European men. Design: Multinational European observational prospective cohort study. Participants: A total of 1887 men (mean ± s.d. age: 63 ± 11 years; median follow up: 4.3 years) from centres of eight European countries comprised the analysis sample after exclusion of those with diagnosed diseases of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT) axis. Main outcome measures: Longitudinal associations between the AR CAG repeat and changes in androgen-sensitive endpoints (ASEs) and medical conditions were assessed using regression analysis adjusting for age and centre. The AR CAG repeat length was treated as both a continuous and a categorical (6-20; 21-23; 24-39 repeats) predictor. Additional analysis investigated whether results were independent of baseline T or oestradiol (E2) levels. Results: The AR CAG repeat, when used as a continuous or a categorical predictor, was not associated with longitudinal changes in ASEs or medical conditions after adjustments. These results were independent of T and E2 levels.


  • Robert J A H Eendebak
  • Ilpo T. Huhtaniemi
  • Stephen R. Pye
  • Tomas Ahern
  • Terence W O'Neill
  • György Bartfai
  • Felipe F. Casanueva
  • Mario Maggi
  • Gianni Forti
  • Robert D. Alston
  • Thang S. Han
  • Krzysztof Kula
  • Michael E J Lean
  • Margus Punab
  • Neil Pendleton
  • Brian G. Keevil
  • Dirk Vanderschueren
  • Martin K. Rutter
  • Gindo Tampubolon
  • Royston Goodacre
  • Frederick C W Wu
External organisations
  • University of Manchester
  • Imperial College London
  • Albert Szent-György Medical University
  • University of Santiago de Compostela
  • University of Florence
  • Skåne University Hospital
  • University College London
  • Medical University of Lodz
  • University of Glasgow
  • University of Tartu
  • University Hospital of South Manchester NHS Foundation Trust
  • Catholic University of Leuven
  • Central Manchester University Hospitals
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Endocrinology and Diabetes
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)583-593
Number of pages11
JournalEuropean Journal of Endocrinology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Dec 1
Publication categoryResearch