The Cardiac State Diagram As A Novel Approach For The Evaluation Of Pre- And Post-Ejection Phases Of The Cardiac Cycle In Asphyxiated Fetal Lambs

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


The aim of this study was to investigate myocardial wall motion using echocardiography and color-coded tissue velocity imaging and to generate a cardiac state diagram for evaluation of the duration of the pre- and post-ejection phases in asphyxiated fetal lambs. Six near-term lambs were partly exteriorized and brought to cardiac arrest through asphyxia. Echocardiography measurements were recorded simultaneously with arterial blood sampling for lactate and blood gases. All fetal lambs exhibited prolongation of the pre- and post-ejection phases at the time when the most pronounced changes in lactate concentration and pH occurred. The mean change in duration of the pre- and post-ejection phases for all fetal lambs was 36 +/- 7 ms (p < 0.002) and 77 +/- 17 ms (p < 0.019), respectively, and the percentage change was 50% (p < 0.001) and 38% (p < 0.049), respectively. As asphyxia progressed in fetal lambs, the duration of the pre- and post-ejection phases increased. The cardiac state diagram has the potential to be a comprehensible tool for detecting fetal asphyxia. (E-mail: (C) 2013 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology.


  • Elle Wagstrom
  • Jonas Johnson
  • Kjerstin Ferm-Widlund
  • Nina Elmstedt
  • Karina Liuba
  • Britta Lind
  • Lars-Ake Brodin
  • Stig Lundback
  • Magnus Westgren
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging


  • Cardiac state diagram, Cardiac time intervals, Doppler, Fetal, physiology, Myocardial motion, Asphyxia, Tissue velocity imaging, Echocardiography
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1682-1687
JournalUltrasound in Medicine and Biology
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2013
Publication categoryResearch