The Coagulopathy of Acute Type A Aortic Dissection: A Prospective, Observational Study
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Objective: To evaluate the hemostatic system in patients undergoing surgery for acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD) compared with those undergoing elective aortic procedures. Design: This was a prospective, observational study. Setting: The study was performed at a single university hospital. Participants: Twenty-five patients with ATAAD were compared with 20 control patients undergoing elective surgery of the ascending aorta or the aortic root. Interventions: No interventions were performed. Measurements and Main Results: Platelet count and levels of fibrinogen, D-dimer, prothrombin time/international normalized ratio, activated partial thromboplastin time, and antithrombin were analyzed perioperatively and compared between the 2 groups. Patients with ATAAD had lower preoperative levels of platelets (188 [156-217] × 10 9 /L v 221 [196-240] × 10 9 /L; p = 0.018), fibrinogen (1.9 [1.6-2.4] g/L v 2.8 [2.2-3.0] g/L; p = 0.003), and antithrombin (0.81 [0.73-0.94] kIU/L v 0.96 [0.92-1.00] kIU/L; p = 0.003) and significantly higher levels of D-dimer (2.9 [1.7-9.7] mg/L v 0.1 [0.1-0.2] mg/L; p < 0.001) and prothrombin time/international normalized ratio (1.15 [1.1-1.2] v 1.0 [0.93-1.0]; p = 0.001). Surgery caused significant changes of the coagulation system in both groups. Intraoperative bleeding volumes were larger in the ATAAD group (2,407 [1,804-3,209] mL v 1,212 [917-1,920] mL; p < 0.001), and patients undergoing ATAAD surgery received significantly more transfusions of red blood cells (2.5 [0.25-4.75] U v 0 [0-2.75] U; p = 0.022), platelets (4 [3.25-6] U v 2 [2-4] U; p = 0.002), and plasma (2 [0-4] U v 0 [0-0] U; p = 0.004) compared with the elective group. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that ATAAD is associated with a coagulopathic state. Surgery causes additional damage to the hemostatic system in ATAAD patients, but also in patients undergoing elective surgery of the ascending aorta or the aortic root.
|Research areas and keywords||
Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY
|Journal||Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia|
|Publication status||E-pub ahead of print - 2019 Feb 11|