The Coagulopathy of Acute Type A Aortic Dissection: A Prospective, Observational Study

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objective: To evaluate the hemostatic system in patients undergoing surgery for acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD) compared with those undergoing elective aortic procedures. Design: This was a prospective, observational study. Setting: The study was performed at a single university hospital. Participants: Twenty-five patients with ATAAD were compared with 20 control patients undergoing elective surgery of the ascending aorta or the aortic root. Interventions: No interventions were performed. Measurements and Main Results: Platelet count and levels of fibrinogen, D-dimer, prothrombin time/international normalized ratio, activated partial thromboplastin time, and antithrombin were analyzed perioperatively and compared between the 2 groups. Patients with ATAAD had lower preoperative levels of platelets (188 [156-217] × 10 9 /L v 221 [196-240] × 10 9 /L; p = 0.018), fibrinogen (1.9 [1.6-2.4] g/L v 2.8 [2.2-3.0] g/L; p = 0.003), and antithrombin (0.81 [0.73-0.94] kIU/L v 0.96 [0.92-1.00] kIU/L; p = 0.003) and significantly higher levels of D-dimer (2.9 [1.7-9.7] mg/L v 0.1 [0.1-0.2] mg/L; p < 0.001) and prothrombin time/international normalized ratio (1.15 [1.1-1.2] v 1.0 [0.93-1.0]; p = 0.001). Surgery caused significant changes of the coagulation system in both groups. Intraoperative bleeding volumes were larger in the ATAAD group (2,407 [1,804-3,209] mL v 1,212 [917-1,920] mL; p < 0.001), and patients undergoing ATAAD surgery received significantly more transfusions of red blood cells (2.5 [0.25-4.75] U v 0 [0-2.75] U; p = 0.022), platelets (4 [3.25-6] U v 2 [2-4] U; p = 0.002), and plasma (2 [0-4] U v 0 [0-0] U; p = 0.004) compared with the elective group. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that ATAAD is associated with a coagulopathic state. Surgery causes additional damage to the hemostatic system in ATAAD patients, but also in patients undergoing elective surgery of the ascending aorta or the aortic root.

Details

Authors
Organisations
External organisations
  • Skåne University Hospital
  • Cleveland Clinic Foundation
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
  • Anesthesiology and Intensive Care

Keywords

  • aneurysm, aorta, bleeding, dissection
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 2019 Feb 11
Publication categoryResearch
Peer-reviewedYes