The Definition of National Identity in the Moroccan Constitution from 2011

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper, not in proceeding


The uprisings in the Middle East in 2011 had repercussions in Morocco too, where demonstrators demanded a reform of the political system. The king managed to diffuse the protests by presenting a new constitution which was accepted by 98,5 percent of the voters in a referendum in July 2011. While the new constitution introduces some limited restrictions on the king’s power, the bulk of executive power is still in his hands. One interesting aspect is the text’s definition of the Moroccan national identity. Morocco is now not only defined as a Muslim country with Islam as state religion and Arabic as official language. It is also defined as a multicultural and multilingual country in which Amazighe and Hassani languages are central components as well as “African, Andalusian, Jewish and Mediterranean elements.” All these elements are described as essential parts of the unified Moroccan identity. All this is in line with the policy of Muhammad VI since he ascended to the throne in 1999. While this is a recognition of different Moroccan cultures and traditions, it also underscores the king’s role as the only unifying factor in a highly diverse society.


Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Other Social Sciences


  • Islam, Middle East, Arab Uprisings, Law, Constitutional law
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusUnpublished - 2013
Publication categoryResearch
EventThe Ninth Nordic Conference on Middle Eastern Studie: Everyday Life in the Middle East - Lund, Lund, Sweden
Duration: 2013 Sep 192013 Sep 21


ConferenceThe Ninth Nordic Conference on Middle Eastern Studie
Internet address