The impact of diabetes, education and income on mortality and cardiovascular events in hypertensive patients: A cohort study from the Swedish Primary Care Cardiovascular Database (SPCCD)

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Objective In this study we aimed to estimate the effect of diabetes, educational level and income on the risk of mortality and cardiovascular events in primary care patients with hypertension. Methods We followed 62,557 individuals with hypertension diagnosed 2001-2008, in the Swedish Primary Care Cardiovascular Database. Study outcomes were death, myocardial infarction, and ischemic stroke, assessed using national registers until 2012. Cox regression models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios of outcomes according to diabetes status, educational level, and income. Results During follow-up, 13,231 individuals died, 9981 were diagnosed with diabetes, 4431 with myocardial infarction, and 4433 with ischemic stroke. Hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for diabetes versus no diabetes: mortality 1.57 (1.50-1.65), myocardial infarction 1.24 (1.14-1.34), and ischemic stroke 1.17 (1.07-1.27). Hazard ratios for diabetes and ≤9 years of school versus no diabetes and >12 years of school: mortality 1.56 (1.41-1.73), myocardial infarction 1.36 (1.17-1.59), and ischemic stroke 1.27 (1.08-1.50). Hazard ratios for diabetes and income in the lowest fifth group versus no diabetes and income in the highest fifth group: mortality 3.82 (3.36-4.34), myocardial infarction 2.00 (1.66-2.42), and ischemic stroke 1.91 (1.58-2.31). Conclusions Diabetes combined with low income was associated with substantial excess risk of mortality, myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke among primary care patients with hypertension.


  • Tobias Andersson
  • Miriam Pikkemaat
  • Linus ¨ler Schio
  • Per Hjerpe
  • Axel C. Carlsso
  • Per Wändell
  • Karin Manhem
  • Thomas Kahan
  • Jan Hasselstrom
  • Kristina Bengtsson Bostrom
External organisations
  • Sahlgrenska Academy
  • Närhälsan Norrmalm Health Centre
  • School of Public Health and Community Medicine
  • Karolinska Institutet
  • Danderyd Hospital
  • Academic Primary Health Care Center
  • R&D Centre Skaraborg Primary Care
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Endocrinology and Diabetes
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0237107
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number8 August
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Aug
Publication categoryResearch