The Inflammatory Marker YKL-40 Is Elevated in Cerebrospinal Fluid from Patients with Alzheimer's but Not Parkinson's Disease or Dementia with Lewy Bodies.
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A major difference in the revised diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the incorporation of biomarkers to support a clinical diagnosis and allow the identification of preclinical AD due to AD neuropathological processes. However, AD-specific fluid biomarkers which specifically distinguish clinical AD dementia from other dementia disorders are still missing. Here we aimed to evaluate the disease-specificity of increased YKL-40 levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from AD patients with mild to moderate dementia (n = 49) versus Parkinson's disease (PD) (n = 61) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) patients (n = 36), and non-demented controls (n = 44). Second we aimed to investigate whether altered YKL-40 levels are associated with CSF levels of other inflammation-associated molecules. When correcting for age, AD patients exhibited 21.3%, 27.7% and 38.8% higher YKL-40 levels compared to non-demented controls (p = 0.0283), DLB (p = 0.0027) and PD patients (p<0.0001). The AD-associated increase in YKL-40 was not associated with CSF P-tau, T-tau or Aβ42. No relationship between increased YKL-40 and levels of the astrocytic marker glial-fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), interleukin-8 (IL-8), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) could be identified. Our results confirm previous reports of an age-associated increased in CSF YKL-40 levels and further demonstrate increased CSF YKL-40 in AD patients versus non-demented controls and patients with DLB or PD. The increase in YKL-40 levels in the AD patients was unrelated to the established CSF AD biomarkers and the inflammatory markers GFAP, MCP-1, IP-10 and IL-8, proposing YKL-40 as a marker of yet to be identified AD-related pathological processes.
|Research areas and keywords||
Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY
|Publication status||Published - 2015|