The LEAF questionnaire: a screening tool for the identification of female athletes at risk for the female athlete triad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Background Low energy availability (EA) in female athletes with or without an eating disorder (ED) increases the risk of oligomenorrhoea/functional hypothalamic amenorrhoea and impaired bone health, a syndrome called the female athlete triad (Triad). There are validated psychometric instruments developed to detect disordered eating behaviour (DE), but no validated screening tool to detect persistent low EA and Triad conditions, with or without DE/ED, is available. Aim The aim of this observational study was to develop and test a screening tool designed to identify female athletes at risk for the Triad. Methods Female athletes (n= 84) with 18-39 years of age and training >= 5 times/week filled out the Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire (LEAF-Q), which comprised questions regarding injuries and gastrointestinal and reproductive function. Reliability and internal consistency were evaluated in a subsample of female dancers and endurance athletes (n= 37). Discriminant as well as concurrent validity was evaluated by testing self-reported data against measured current EA, menstrual function and bone health in endurance athletes from sports such as long distance running and triathlon (n= 45). Results The 25-item LEAF-Q produced an acceptable sensitivity (78%) and specificity (90%) in order to correctly classify current EA and/or reproductive function and/or bone health. Conclusions The LEAF-Q is brief and easy to administer, and relevant as a complement to existing validated DE screening instruments, when screening female athletes at risk for the Triad, in order to enable early detection and intervention.


  • Anna Melin
  • Åsa Tornberg
  • Sven Skouby
  • Jens Faber
  • Christian Ritz
  • Anders Sjodin
  • Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Sport and Fitness Sciences
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)540-545
JournalBritish journal of sports medicine
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2014
Publication categoryResearch