The Malmo polymorphism of coagulation factor IX, an immunologic polymorphism due to dimorphism of residue 148 that is in linkage disequilibrium with two other F.IX polymorphisms

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A mouse monoclonal antibody (MAB 9,9) to coagulation factor IX (F.IX) detects a polymorphism in the plasma of normal people. Its epitope has been narrowed down to <6 amino acids in the activation peptide of the X-linked F.IX protein. The activation peptide contains a dimorphism - Thr:Ala - at position 148 of the protein. Using synthetic oligonucleotides, we have demonstrated that (1) the F.IX which reacts with 9.9 has Thr at position 148 and (2) that which does not has Ala. Positive reactors (148(thr)) are designated Malmo A, and negative reactors (148(ala)) are designated Malmo B. The plasma levels of AA women are indistinguishable from those of A men, and both B men and BB women are null against MAB 9.9. The plasma level of Malmo A in AB women is approximately half that of AA women, and 'lyonization' is clearly operating in the heterozygotes. The dimorphism is in strong linkage disequilibrium with two other intragenic RFLPs, TaqI and XmnI. Furthermore, intragenic crossing-over - including double crossing-over - appears to have occurred between the three sites. Seven of the eight possible haplotypes have been identified, five in men and two others in women. The immunoassay that identifies ~50% of the AB women in the pool of Malmo A females with 95% confidence identifies men unambiguously as A or B. The assay would be very useful for population-genetic studies of the Malmo epitope if the studies were limited to men.


  • J. B. Graham
  • D. B. Lubahn
  • S. T. Lord
  • J. Kirshtein
  • Inga Marie Nilsson
  • A. Wallmark
  • R. Ljung
  • L. D. Frazier
  • J. L. Ware
  • S. Wah Lin
  • D. W. Stafford
  • J. Bosco
External organisations
  • University of North Carolina
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)573-580
JournalAmerican Journal of Human Genetics
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1988
Publication categoryResearch