The three ZNT8 autoantibody variants together improve the diagnostic sensitivity of childhood and adolescent type 1 diabetes.

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The three ZNT8 autoantibody variants together improve the diagnostic sensitivity of childhood and adolescent type 1 diabetes. / Andersson, Cecilia K; Larsson, Karin; Vaziri Sani, Fariba; Lynch, Kristian; Carlsson, Annelie; Cedervall, E; Jönsson, B; Neiderud, J; Månsson, Majvi; Nilsson, Anna-Lena; Lernmark, Åke; Larsson, Helena; Ivarsson, Sten.

In: Autoimmunity, Vol. 44, 2011, p. 394-405.

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T1 - The three ZNT8 autoantibody variants together improve the diagnostic sensitivity of childhood and adolescent type 1 diabetes.

AU - Andersson, Cecilia K

AU - Larsson, Karin

AU - Vaziri Sani, Fariba

AU - Lynch, Kristian

AU - Carlsson, Annelie

AU - Cedervall, E

AU - Jönsson, B

AU - Neiderud, J

AU - Månsson, Majvi

AU - Nilsson, Anna-Lena

AU - Lernmark, Åke

AU - Larsson, Helena

AU - Ivarsson, Sten

PY - 2011

Y1 - 2011

N2 - Aims: We tested whether autoantibodies to all three ZnT8RWQ variants, GAD65, insulinoma-associated protein 2 (IA-2), insulin and autoantibodies to islet cell cytoplasm (ICA) in combination with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) would improve the diagnostic sensitivity of childhood type 1 diabetes by detecting the children who otherwise would have been autoantibody-negative. Methods: A total of 686 patients diagnosed in 1996-2005 in Skåne were analyzed for all the seven autoantibodies [arginin 325 zinc transporter 8 autoantibody (ZnT8RA), tryptophan 325 zinc transporter 8 autoantibody (ZnT8WA), glutamine 325 Zinc transporter 8 autoantibody (ZnT8QA), autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), Autoantibodies to islet-antigen-2 (IA-2A), insulin autoantibodies (IAA) and ICA] in addition to HLA-DQ genotypes. Results: Zinc transporter 8 autoantibody to either one or all three amino acid variants at position 325 (ZnT8RWQA) was found in 65% (449/686) of the patients. The frequency was independent of age at diagnosis. The ZnT8RWQA reduced the frequency of autoantibody-negative patients from 7.5 to 5.4%-a reduction by 28%. Only 2 of 108 (2%) patients who are below 5 years of age had no autoantibody at diagnosis. Diagnosis without any islet autoantibody increased with increasing age at onset. DQA1-B1(*)X-0604 was associated with both ZnT8RA (p = 0.002) and ZnT8WA (p = 0.01) but not with ZnT8QA (p = 0.07). Kappa agreement analysis showed moderate (>0.40) to fair (>0.20) agreement between pairs of autoantibodies for all combinations of GADA, IA-2A, ZnT8RWQA and ICA but only slight ( < 0.19) agreement for any combination with IAA. Conclusions: This study revealed that (1) the ZnT8RWQA was common, independent of age; (2) multiple autoantibodies were common among the young; (3) DQA1-B1(*)X-0604 increased the risk for ZnT8RA and ZnT8WA; (4) agreement between autoantibody pairs was common for all combinations except IAA. These results suggest that ZnT8RWQA is a necessary complement to the classification and prediction of childhood type 1 diabetes as well as to randomize the subjects in the prevention and intervention of clinical trials.

AB - Aims: We tested whether autoantibodies to all three ZnT8RWQ variants, GAD65, insulinoma-associated protein 2 (IA-2), insulin and autoantibodies to islet cell cytoplasm (ICA) in combination with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) would improve the diagnostic sensitivity of childhood type 1 diabetes by detecting the children who otherwise would have been autoantibody-negative. Methods: A total of 686 patients diagnosed in 1996-2005 in Skåne were analyzed for all the seven autoantibodies [arginin 325 zinc transporter 8 autoantibody (ZnT8RA), tryptophan 325 zinc transporter 8 autoantibody (ZnT8WA), glutamine 325 Zinc transporter 8 autoantibody (ZnT8QA), autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), Autoantibodies to islet-antigen-2 (IA-2A), insulin autoantibodies (IAA) and ICA] in addition to HLA-DQ genotypes. Results: Zinc transporter 8 autoantibody to either one or all three amino acid variants at position 325 (ZnT8RWQA) was found in 65% (449/686) of the patients. The frequency was independent of age at diagnosis. The ZnT8RWQA reduced the frequency of autoantibody-negative patients from 7.5 to 5.4%-a reduction by 28%. Only 2 of 108 (2%) patients who are below 5 years of age had no autoantibody at diagnosis. Diagnosis without any islet autoantibody increased with increasing age at onset. DQA1-B1(*)X-0604 was associated with both ZnT8RA (p = 0.002) and ZnT8WA (p = 0.01) but not with ZnT8QA (p = 0.07). Kappa agreement analysis showed moderate (>0.40) to fair (>0.20) agreement between pairs of autoantibodies for all combinations of GADA, IA-2A, ZnT8RWQA and ICA but only slight ( < 0.19) agreement for any combination with IAA. Conclusions: This study revealed that (1) the ZnT8RWQA was common, independent of age; (2) multiple autoantibodies were common among the young; (3) DQA1-B1(*)X-0604 increased the risk for ZnT8RA and ZnT8WA; (4) agreement between autoantibody pairs was common for all combinations except IAA. These results suggest that ZnT8RWQA is a necessary complement to the classification and prediction of childhood type 1 diabetes as well as to randomize the subjects in the prevention and intervention of clinical trials.

U2 - 10.3109/08916934.2010.540604

DO - 10.3109/08916934.2010.540604

M3 - Article

C2 - 21244337

VL - 44

SP - 394

EP - 405

JO - Autoimmunity

JF - Autoimmunity

SN - 0891-6934

ER -