The value of bladder mapping and prostatic urethra biopsies for detection of carcinoma in situ (CIS).

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Abstract

Study Type - Diagnostic (case series) Level of Evidence 4 What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? It is well known that CIS is a major risk factor for muscle-invasive bladder cancer and that this entity can be difficult to diagnose. Taking cold-cup mapping biopsies from different areas of the bladder (BMAP) is commonly used in patients at risk of harbouring CIS. The diagnostic accuracy of this approach has not been assessed until now. By using the CIS found in the cystoprostatectomy specimen as an indicator of the true occurrence of CIS and comparing that with the findings of BMAP, it is clear that the sensitivity of BMAP to detect CIS when present is low and that negative findings should be considered unreliable. OBJECTIVES: • To assess the value of bladder mapping and prostatic urethra biopsies for detection of urothelial carcinoma in situ (CIS). • CIS of the urinary bladder is a flat high-grade lesion of the mucosa associated with a significant risk of progression to muscle-invasive disease. CIS is difficult to identify on cystoscopy, and definite diagnosis requires histopathology. Traditionally, if CIS is suspected, multiple cold-cup biopsies are taken from the bladder mucosa, and resection biopsies are obtained from the prostatic urethra in males. This approach is often called bladder mapping (BMAP). The accuracy of BMAP as a diagnostic tool is not known. PATIENTS AND METHODS: • Male patients with bladder cancer scheduled for cystectomy underwent cold-cup bladder biopsies (sidewalls, posterior wall, dome, trigone), and resection biopsies were taken from the prostatic urethra. • After cystectomy, the surgical specimen was investigated in a standardised manner and subsequently compared with the BMAP biopsies for the presence of CIS. RESULTS: • The histopathology reports of 162 patients were analysed. CIS was detected in 46% of the cystoprostatectomy specimens, and multiple (≥2) CIS lesions were found in 30%. • BMAP (cold-cup bladder biopsies + resection biopsies from the prostatic urethra) provided sensitivity of 51% for any CIS, and 55% for multiple CIS lesions. The cold-cup biopsies for CIS in the bladder mucosa showed sensitivity and specificity of 46% and 89%, respectively. CONCLUSION: • Traditional cold-cup biopsies are unreliable for detecting CIS in bladder mucosa and negative findings must be interpreted with caution.

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Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Urology and Nephrology
Original languageEnglish
JournalBJU International
Early online date2011 Oct 28
Publication statusPublished - 2011
Publication categoryResearch
Peer-reviewedYes