TNT leakage through sediment to water and toxicity to Nitocra spinipes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


The fate and effects of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) at marine ammunition dumping sites are essentially unknown. The objective of this study was to examine the release from solid TNT to seawater when covered by sediment of two different types (sandy and fine-grained) and thickness (0, 1 2, and 4 cm), under different temperatures (5, 10, and 20 degrees C), and light conditions (ambient daylight and darkness) in the laboratory. The water column was analysed for TNT and some of its common transformation products, and toxicity to the copepod Nitocra spinipes after 1, 2, 4, 8, 19, and 32 weeks. Leakage of TNT to seawater and the toxicity to N. spinipes was significantly reduced by sediment burial, especially in fine-grained sediment. Hence, this study suggests that adverse effects of TNT in dumped ammunition oil aquatic organisms should be delayed/reduced at low temperature and when TNT is covered sediment, especially with fine-grained sediment.


  • Helene Ek
  • Eva Nilsson
  • Göran Birgersson
  • Göran Dave
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Ecology


  • ADNT, transformation, bioassay, 2.4.6-trinitrotoluene, ammunition
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)341-348
JournalEcotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2007
Publication categoryResearch

Bibliographic note

The information about affiliations in this record was updated in December 2015. The record was previously connected to the following departments: Chemical Ecology/Ecotoxicology (Closed 2011) (011006020)