Tobacco smoke and bladder cancer-in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between smoking and the development of bladder cancer. The study population consisted of 429,906 persons participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), 633 of whom developed bladder cancer during the follow-up period. An increased risk of bladder cancer was found for both current- (incidence rate ratio 3.96, 95% confidence interval: 3.07-5.09) and ex- (2.25, 1.74-2.91) smokers, compared to never-smokers. A positive association with intensity (per 5 cigarettes) was found among current-smokers (1.18, 1.09-1.28). Associations (per 5 years) were observed for duration (1.14, 1.08-1.21), later age at start (0.75, 0.66-0.85) and longer time since quitting (0.92, 0.86-0.98). Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) during childhood increased the risk of bladder cancer (1.38, 1.00-1.90), whereas for ETS exposure as adult no effect was detected. The present study confirms the strong association between smoking and bladder cancer. The indication of a higher risk of bladder cancer for those who start smoking at a young age and for those exposed to ETS during childhood adds to the body of evidence suggesting that children are more sensitive to carcinogens than adults. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.


  • Bine Kjoller Bjerregaard
  • Ole Raaschou-Nielsen
  • Mette Sorensen
  • Kirsten Frederiksen
  • Jane Christensen
  • Anne Tjonneland
  • Kim Overvad
  • Francoise Clavel Chapelon
  • Gabriele Nagel
  • Jenny Chang-Claude
  • Manuela M. Bergmann
  • Heiner Boeing
  • Dimitrios Trichopoulos
  • Antonia Trichopoulou
  • Eleni Oikonomou
  • Franco Berrino
  • Domenico Palli
  • Rosario Tumino
  • Paolo Vineis
  • Salvatore Panico
  • And 12 others
  • Petra H. M. Peeters
  • H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita
  • Lambertus Kiemeney
  • Inger Torhild Gram
  • Tonje Braaten
  • Eiliv Lund
  • Carlos A. Gonzalez
  • Göran Berglund
  • Naomi Allen
  • Andrew Roddam
  • Sheila Bingham
  • Elio Riboli
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Cancer and Oncology


  • tobacco smoke, epidemiology, bladder neoplasm, cohort study
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2412-2416
JournalInternational Journal of Cancer
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2006
Publication categoryResearch