Tolerance induction using the Malmo treatment model 1982-1995

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The ultimate goal in the treatment of haemophilia patients with inhibitors is to eradicate permanently the inhibitor and induce tolerance. Here we summarize our experience at the Malmo centre regarding tolerance induction according to the Malmo Treatment Model. The protocol includes immunoadsorption if needed, neutralization of inhibitor and replacement with factor concentrates, cyclophosphamide intravenously for 2 days (12-15 mg kg-1 bw) and then orally (2-3 mg kg-1 bw) for an additional 8-10 days and intravenous gammaglobulin daily at dosages of 0.4 g kg-1 bw for 5 days. This protocol has been applied in 23 haemophilia patients with inhibitors, 16 haemophilia A patients and seven haemophilia B patients. Altogether 36 attempts have been made to induce tolerance. Ten of the 16 haemophilia A (62.5%) and 6/7 patients with haemophilia B (86%) became tolerant after the treatment. The chances of success or failure are roughly equal, if the series is considered in a historical perspective. The data showed that the chances of success in tolerance induction with the Malmo protocol were best in those patients with low inhibitor titres, with relatively low historical inhibitory peak and with a long interval since the previous replacement therapy. This was especially true where no inflammatory state was present at the start or during tolerance induction. The advantage with this method compared to the high-dose regimen is that in the successful cases tolerance can be achieved within 3-4 weeks.


  • Christian Freiburghaus
  • Erik Berntorp
  • Maj Ekman
  • Margoth Gunnarsson
  • B Kjellberg
  • I M Nilsson
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Hematology


  • factor IX, factor VIII, haemophilia, inhibitors, tolerance induction
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)32-39
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1999
Publication categoryResearch