Transforming growth factor-beta induces selective increase of proteoglycan production and changes in the copolymeric structure of dermatan sulphate in human skin fibroblasts
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Human embryonic skin fibroblasts were pretreated with transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) for 6 h and then labeled with [35S]sulphate and [3H]leucine for 24 h. Radiolabeled proteoglycans from the culture medium and the cell layer were isolated and separated by isopycnic density-gradient centrifugation, followed by gel, ion-exchange and hydrophobic-interaction chromatography. The major proteoglycan species were examined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulphate before and after enzymatic degradation of the polysaccharide chains. The results showed that TGF-beta increased the production of several different 35S-labelled proteoglycans. A large chondroitin/dermatan sulphate proteoglycan (with core proteins of approximately 400-500 kDa) increased 5-7-fold and a small dermatan sulphate proteoglycan (PG-S1, also termed biglycan, with a core protein of 43 kDa) increased 3-4-fold both in the medium and in the cell layer. Only a small effect was observed on another dermatan sulphate proteoglycan, PG-S2 (also named decorin). These observations are generally in agreement with results of other studies using similar cell types. In addition, we have found that the major heparan sulphate proteoglycan of the cell layer (protein core approximately 350 kDa) was increased by TGF-beta treatment, whereas all the other smaller heparan sulphate proteoglycans with protein cores from 250 kDa to 30 kDa appeared unaffected. To investigate whether TGF-beta also influences the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chain-synthesizing machinery, we also characterized GAGs derived from proteoglycans synthesized by TGF-beta-treated cells. There was generally no increase in the size of the GAG chains. However, the dermatan sulphate chains on biglycan and decorin from TGF-beta treated cultures contained a larger proportion of D-glucuronosyl residues than those derived from untreated cultures. No effect was noted on the 4- and 6-sulphation of the GAG chains. By the use of p-nitrophenyl beta-D-xyloside (an initiator of GAG synthesis) it could be demonstrated that chain synthesis was also enhanced in TGF-beta-treated cells (approximately twofold). Furthermore, the dermatan sulphate chains synthesized on the xyloside in TGF-beta-treated fibroblasts contained a larger proportion of D-glucuronosyl residues than those of the control. These novel findings indicate that TGF-beta affects proteoglycan synthesis both quantitatively and qualitatively and that it can also change the copolymeric structure of the GAG by affecting the GAG-synthesizing machinery. Altered proteoglycan structure and production may have profound effects on the properties of extracellular matrices, which can affect cell growth and migration as well as organisation of matrix fibres.
|Research areas and keywords||
Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY
|Journal||European Journal of Biochemistry|
|Publication status||Published - 1992|