Two-dimensional graphene paper supported flexible enzymatic fuel cells

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


title = "Two-dimensional graphene paper supported flexible enzymatic fuel cells",
abstract = "Application of enzymatic biofuel cells (EBFCs) in wearable or implantable biomedical devices requires flexible and biocompatible electrode materials. To this end, freestanding and low-cost graphene paper is emerging among the most promising support materials. In this work, we have exploited the potential of using graphene paper with a two-dimensional active surface (2D-GP) as a carrier for enzyme immobilization to fabricate EBFCs, representing the first case of flexible graphene papers directly used in EBFCs. The 2D-GP electrodes were prepared via the assembly of graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets into a paper-like architecture, followed by reduction to form layered and cross-linked networks with good mechanical strength, high conductivity and little dependence on the degree of mechanical bending. 2D-GP electrodes served as both a current collector and an enzyme loading substrate that can be used directly as a bioanode and biocathode. Pyrroloquinoline quinone dependent glucose dehydrogenase (PQQ-GDH) and bilirubin oxidase (BOx) adsorbed on the 2D-GP electrodes both retain their biocatalytic activities. Electron transfer (ET) at the bioanode required Meldola blue (MB) as an ET mediator to shuttle electrons between PQQ-GDH and the electrode, but direct electron transfer (DET) at the biocathode was achieved. The resulting glucose/oxygen EBFC displayed a notable mechanical flexibility, with a wide open circuit voltage range up to 0.665 V and a maximum power density of approximately 4 μW cm-2 both fully competitive with reported values for related EBFCs, and with mechanical flexibility and facile enzyme immobilization as novel merits.",
author = "Fei Shen and Dmitry Pankratov and Arnab Halder and Xinxin Xiao and Toscano, {Miguel D.} and Jingdong Zhang and Jens Ulstrup and Lo Gorton and Qijin Chi",
year = "2019",
doi = "10.1039/c9na00178f",
language = "English",
volume = "1",
pages = "2562--2570",
journal = "Nanoscale Advances",
issn = "2516-0230",
publisher = "Royal Society of Chemistry",
number = "7",