Typical Load Shapes for Swedish Schools ans Hotels

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


In this study, typical load shapes for two categories of Swedish commercial and public buildings – schools and hotels – are presented and discussed. The measurements from 13 schools and 9 hotels in the south part of Sweden were analysed. Load shapes are developed for different mean daily outdoor temperatures and different day-types - standard weekdays and standard weekends. The load shapes are presented as non-dimensional normalised 1-hour load. The typical load shapes give a reasonable approximation of the measured load shapes, although the relative errors exceed 20% of the mean values during some hours. Daytime (9 a.m.-5 p.m.) results are generally good with errors about 10%. Absolute errors remain relatively constant during the year but as mean values decrease, the relative errors increase, causing relative errors up to 30% during some time periods.


  • Corfitz Norén
  • Jurek Pyrko
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering


  • Load shapes, schools, hotels, Sweden
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)145-157
JournalEnergy and Buildings
Publication statusPublished - 1998
Publication categoryResearch

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