ULTRASOUND STUDIES ON PELVIC FLOOR PHYSIOLOGY AND OBSTETRIC PERINEAL TEARS

Research output: ThesisDoctoral Thesis (compilation)

Standard

ULTRASOUND STUDIES ON PELVIC FLOOR PHYSIOLOGY AND OBSTETRIC PERINEAL TEARS. / Örnö, Ann-Kristin.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lund University, 2007. 63 p.

Research output: ThesisDoctoral Thesis (compilation)

Harvard

Örnö, A-K 2007, 'ULTRASOUND STUDIES ON PELVIC FLOOR PHYSIOLOGY AND OBSTETRIC PERINEAL TEARS', Doctor, Obstetrics and Gynaecology (Lund).

APA

Örnö, A-K. (2007). ULTRASOUND STUDIES ON PELVIC FLOOR PHYSIOLOGY AND OBSTETRIC PERINEAL TEARS. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lund University.

CBE

Örnö A-K. 2007. ULTRASOUND STUDIES ON PELVIC FLOOR PHYSIOLOGY AND OBSTETRIC PERINEAL TEARS. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lund University. 63 p.

MLA

Örnö, Ann-Kristin ULTRASOUND STUDIES ON PELVIC FLOOR PHYSIOLOGY AND OBSTETRIC PERINEAL TEARS Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lund University. 2007.

Vancouver

Örnö A-K. ULTRASOUND STUDIES ON PELVIC FLOOR PHYSIOLOGY AND OBSTETRIC PERINEAL TEARS. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lund University, 2007. 63 p.

Author

Örnö, Ann-Kristin. / ULTRASOUND STUDIES ON PELVIC FLOOR PHYSIOLOGY AND OBSTETRIC PERINEAL TEARS. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lund University, 2007. 63 p.

RIS

TY - THES

T1 - ULTRASOUND STUDIES ON PELVIC FLOOR PHYSIOLOGY AND OBSTETRIC PERINEAL TEARS

AU - Örnö, Ann-Kristin

N1 - Defence details Date: 2007-05-05 Time: 09:00 Place: Föreläsningssalen, KK Lund External reviewer(s) Name: Öresland, Tom Title: Docent Affiliation: Sahlgrenska universitetssjukhuset/Östra --- <div class="article_info">Ann-Kristin Örnö, Karel Marsál and Andreas Herbst. <span class="article_issue_date"></span>. <span class="article_title">Ultrasonographic anatomy of perineal structures during pregnancy and immediately following obstetric injury</span> (submitted)</div> <div class="article_info">Ann-Kristin Örnö, Håkan Lövkvist, Karel Marsál, Kristina Vult von Steyern and Einar Arnbjörnsson. <span class="article_issue_date"></span>. <span class="article_title">Ultrasound visualization of the rectoanal inhibitory reflex in children suspected of Hirschsprung´s disease: a pilot study</span> (manuscript)</div> <div class="article_info">Ann-Kristin Örnö and Hans Peter Dietz. <span class="article_issue_date"></span>. <span class="article_title">Levator co-activation is a significant confounder of pelvic organ descent on Valsalva Manoeuvre. Örnö AK, Dietz HP</span> (submitted)</div> <div class="article_info">AK Örnö, A Herbst and K Marsál. <span class="article_issue_date">2007</span>. <span class="article_title">Sonographic Characteristics of rectal sensations in healthy females</span> <span class="journal_series_title">Dis Colon Rectum</span>, <span class="journal_volume">vol 50</span> <span class="journal_pages">pp 64-8</span>.</div> <div class="article_info">Ann-Kristin Örnö and Karel Marsál. <span class="article_issue_date">2006</span>. <span class="article_title">Sonographic investigation of the rectoanal inhibitory reflex: A qualitative pilot study in healthy females</span> <span class="journal_series_title">Dis Colon Rectum</span>, <span class="journal_volume">vol 49</span> <span class="journal_pages">pp 233-7</span>.</div>

PY - 2007

Y1 - 2007

N2 - Repair of obstetric perineal tears is one of the most frequent procedures in surgical practice. Despite repair such tears may result in anal and urinary incontinence and prolapses of the pelvic floor, problems in need of surgical repair later in life. Descriptions of the structures injured during vaginal delivery and their topographic relations in the perineum are missing in most textbooks. Transvaginal ultrasound with a biplane linear probe was used to provide a topographic description of the mid-sagittal perineal anatomy in 45 pregnant women. To estimate the extent of obstetric tears, both semicircular and linear anal and vaginal ultrasound was applied. In 40 sphincter tears investigated before surgery the following structures were intact; the perineal membrane in 10%, the puboperineal muscles in 10%, the central point in 18%, the conjoined longitudinal muscle in 55% and the internal anal sphincter in 78%. To assess urinary incontinence and grade pelvic organ prolapse the Valsalva manoeuvre is used. Biofeedback resulted in an increase in bladder neck descent and in levator hiatal area when the Valsalva manoeuvre was performed during examination by 4D/3D translabial ultrasound. The increase was significantly greater when the levator ani was relaxed. Contraction of the levator ani is a confounder that needs to be taken into consideration when judging results of studies based on the Valsalva manoeuvre. The reduction in intra-anal pressure during the rectoanal inhibitory reflex is accompanied by increased diameter of the internal anal sphincter and reduced distance between the anal rim and the rectal contents, reflecting the transport of bolus into the anal canal. A contraction of the internal anal sphincter, commencing in the distal part of the anal canal, results in an antiperistaltic movement of rectal contents back into the rectum when the reflex ceases. In children with severe constipation and suspected Hirschsprung´s disease the rectoanal reflex was found in 18/28 by ultrasound and in 20/28 by anometry. Neither of the methods missed the 3 children with aganglionosis. The Kappa index was 0.46 for anometry and 0.38 for ultrasound. As ultrasound has no side effects and is readily available, this new concept of visualizing the reflex may well replace anometry. The disappearance of rectal sensations in continent female subjects is related to a contraction in the internal anal sphincter, antiperistalsis in the anal canal and a relaxation in the external anal sphincter. The contraction of the latter may be needed to convert the peristalsis in the anal canal into antiperistalsis.

AB - Repair of obstetric perineal tears is one of the most frequent procedures in surgical practice. Despite repair such tears may result in anal and urinary incontinence and prolapses of the pelvic floor, problems in need of surgical repair later in life. Descriptions of the structures injured during vaginal delivery and their topographic relations in the perineum are missing in most textbooks. Transvaginal ultrasound with a biplane linear probe was used to provide a topographic description of the mid-sagittal perineal anatomy in 45 pregnant women. To estimate the extent of obstetric tears, both semicircular and linear anal and vaginal ultrasound was applied. In 40 sphincter tears investigated before surgery the following structures were intact; the perineal membrane in 10%, the puboperineal muscles in 10%, the central point in 18%, the conjoined longitudinal muscle in 55% and the internal anal sphincter in 78%. To assess urinary incontinence and grade pelvic organ prolapse the Valsalva manoeuvre is used. Biofeedback resulted in an increase in bladder neck descent and in levator hiatal area when the Valsalva manoeuvre was performed during examination by 4D/3D translabial ultrasound. The increase was significantly greater when the levator ani was relaxed. Contraction of the levator ani is a confounder that needs to be taken into consideration when judging results of studies based on the Valsalva manoeuvre. The reduction in intra-anal pressure during the rectoanal inhibitory reflex is accompanied by increased diameter of the internal anal sphincter and reduced distance between the anal rim and the rectal contents, reflecting the transport of bolus into the anal canal. A contraction of the internal anal sphincter, commencing in the distal part of the anal canal, results in an antiperistaltic movement of rectal contents back into the rectum when the reflex ceases. In children with severe constipation and suspected Hirschsprung´s disease the rectoanal reflex was found in 18/28 by ultrasound and in 20/28 by anometry. Neither of the methods missed the 3 children with aganglionosis. The Kappa index was 0.46 for anometry and 0.38 for ultrasound. As ultrasound has no side effects and is readily available, this new concept of visualizing the reflex may well replace anometry. The disappearance of rectal sensations in continent female subjects is related to a contraction in the internal anal sphincter, antiperistalsis in the anal canal and a relaxation in the external anal sphincter. The contraction of the latter may be needed to convert the peristalsis in the anal canal into antiperistalsis.

KW - reproduction

KW - sexuality

KW - Obstetrik

KW - andrology

KW - bladder neck descent

KW - rectoanal inhibitory reflex

KW - rectal sensation

KW - Hirschsprung´s disease

KW - Obstetrics

KW - gynaecology

KW - Valsalva manoeuvre

KW - perineal tears

KW - Pelvic floor

KW - anal sphincter

KW - gynekologi

KW - andrologi

KW - reproduktion

KW - sexualitet

M3 - Doctoral Thesis (compilation)

SN - 978-91-85559-43-5

PB - Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lund University

ER -