Understanding the mechanical limitations of the performance of soft X-ray monochromators at MAX IV laboratory

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


MAX IV is a fourth-generation, or diffraction-limited, synchrotron light source with a number of state-of-the-art beamlines. The performance of a beamline is, to a high degree, set by the energy resolution it can achieve, which in turn is governed to a large extent by the monochromator. During the design phase of a monochromator, the mechanical requirements must be fully understood and met with margin. During commissioning, the performance must be verified and optimized. In this paper, six soft X-ray monochromators at MAX IV beamlines (Bloch, Veritas, HIPPIE, SPECIES, FinEstBeAMS and SoftiMAX) are examined with a focus on their resolving power, energy range and the time required to change measurement range, as those parameters are dependent on each other. The monochromators have a modern commercial design, planned and developed in close collaboration with the vendors. This paper aims to present the current status of the commissioning at MAX IV with emphasis on elucidating the mechanical limitations on the performance of the monochromators. It contains analysis of the outcome and our approach to achieve fast and high-resolution monochromators.


  • Peter Sjöblom
  • Gabriela Todorescu
  • Samuli Urpelainen
External organisations
  • University of Oulu
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Accelerator Physics and Instrumentation
  • Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering


  • dispersion, fixed focus constant, monochromator, motion, ultra-high resolution
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)272-283
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Synchrotron Radiation
Issue numberPt 2
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Mar 1
Publication categoryResearch