Urban ecosystem conditions and ecosystem services – a comparison between large urban zones and city cores in the EU

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Almost three out of four EU citizens live in urban areas. Knowledge on the city’s environmental structure and capabilities is needed as urbanization is expected to continue. In this study, eight indicators on urban ecosystems condition (ECIs) were quantified for 305 EU cities (>100.000 inhabitants). A composite indicator (CI), based on the ECIs, indicated differences between northern and southern EU countries, with Umeå having the highest CI value (1.56) and Napoli the lowest (−1.21). Positive effects of urban green infrastructure (GI) were found for NO2 removal, recreation opportunities and lowered urban heat island effect. The proportion of green and built infrastructure differs between city cores and larger urban zones, and the area outside the core hosts a considerable part of the overall GI. This zone is thus of importance for the provisioning of urban ecosystem services, to be considered when planning for urban growth and climate adaptation strategies.


External organisations
  • Lund University
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Landscape Architecture
  • Human Geography
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Environmental Planning and Management
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 2019 Jun 27
Publication categoryResearch