Validation of the breast evaluation questionnaire for breast hypertrophy and breast reduction

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


BACKGROUND: There is a lack of published, validated questionnaires for evaluating psychosocial morbidity in patients with breast hypertrophy undergoing breast reduction surgery.

AIM: To validate the breast evaluation questionnaire (BEQ), originally developed for the assessment of breast augmentation patients, for the assessment of psychosocial morbidity in patients with breast hypertrophy undergoing breast reduction surgery.

STUDY DESIGN: Validation study Subjects: Women with macromastia Methods: The validation of the BEQ, adapted to breast reduction, was performed in several steps. Content validity, reliability, construct validity and responsiveness were assessed.

RESULTS: The original version was adjusted according to the results for content validity and resulted in item reduction and a modified BEQ (mBEQ) that was then assessed for reliability, construct validity and responsiveness. Internal and external validation was performed for the modified BEQ. Convergent validity was tested against Breast-Q (reduction) and discriminate validity was tested against the SF-36. Known-groups validation revealed significant differences between the normal population and patients undergoing breast reduction surgery. The BEQ showed good reliability by test-re-test analysis and high responsiveness.

CONCLUSION: The modified BEQ may be reliable, valid and responsive instrument for assessing women who undergo breast reduction.


  • Richard Lewin
  • Anna Elander
  • Jonas Lundberg
  • Emma Hansson
  • Andri Thorarinsson
  • Malin Claudelin
  • Helena Bladh
  • Mattias Lidén
External organisations
  • Sahlgrenska Academy
  • Sahlgrenska University Hospital
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Surgery
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-8
JournalJournal of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 2018 Jun 13
Publication categoryResearch
Externally publishedYes