Validation of the Swedish Multidimensional Dyspnea Profile (MDP) in outpatients with cardiorespiratory disease

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Introduction Breathlessness is a cardinal symptom in cardiorespiratory disease. An instrument for measuring different aspects of breathlessness was recently developed, the Multidimensional Dyspnea Profile (MDP). This study aimed to validate the MDP in terms of the underlying factor structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability and concurrent validity in Swedish outpatients with cardiorespiratory disease. Methods Outpatients with stable cardiorespiratory disease and breathlessness in daily life were recruited. Factor structure of MDP was analysed using confirmatory factor analysis; internal consistency was analysed using Cronbach's alpha; and test-retest reliability was analysed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for patients with unchanged breathlessness between assessments (baseline, after 30-90 min and 2 weeks). Concurrent validity was evaluated using correlations with validated scales of breathlessness, anxiety, depression and health-related quality of life. Results In total, 182 outpatients with cardiorespiratory disease and breathlessness in daily life were included; 53.3% were women; main diagnoses were chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (24.7%), asthma (21.4%), heart failure (19.2%) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (18.7%). The MDP total, immediate perception and emotional response scores, and individual item scores showed expected factor structure and acceptable measurement properties: internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha, range 0.80-0.93); test-retest reliability at 30-90 min and 2 weeks (ICC, range 0.67-0.91); and concurrent validity. There was no evidence of a learning effect. Findings were similar between diagnoses. Discussion MDP is a valid instrument for multidimensional measurement of breathlessness in Swedish outpatients across cardiorespiratory diseases.


External organisations
  • Blekinge Hospital
  • Karolinska Institutet
  • Uppsala University
  • Umeå University
  • Landstinget Blekinge
  • Uppsala University Hospital
  • Örebro University
  • Hans Bornefalk AB
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Respiratory Medicine and Allergy


  • breathlessness, dyspnoea, heart disease, measurement, multidimensional, respiratory disease, Swedish
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere000381
JournalBMJ Open Respiratory Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2019
Publication categoryResearch