Venomous auger snail Hastula (Impages) hectica (Linnaeus, 1758): Molecular phylogeny, foregut anatomy and comparative toxinology

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The > 10,000 living venomous marine snail species [superfamily Conoidea Fleming, 1822] include cone snails (Conus), the overwhelming focus of research. Hastula hectica (Linnaeus, 1758), a venomous snail in the family Terebridae Morch, 1852 was comprehensively investigated. The Terebridae comprise a major monophyletic group within Conoidea. H. hectica has a striking radular tooth to inject venom that looks like a perforated spear; in Conus, the tooth looks like a hypodermic needle. H. hectica venom contains a large complement of small disulfide-rich peptides, but with no apparent overlap with Conus in gene superfamilies expressed. Although Conus peptide toxins are densely post-translationally modified, no post-translationally modified amino acids were found in any Hastula venom peptide. The results suggest that different major lineages of venomous molluscs have strikingly divergent toxinological and venom-delivery strategies. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Deu. Euol.) 308B: 744- 756, 2007. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.


  • Julita S. Imperial
  • Yuri Kantor
  • Maren Watkins
  • Francisco M., III Heralde
  • Bradford Stevenson
  • Ping Chen
  • Karin M Hansson
  • Johan Stenflo
  • John-Paul Ownby
  • Philippe Bouchet
  • Baldomero M. Olivera
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Medicinal Chemistry
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)744-756
JournalJournal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2007
Publication categoryResearch