α1-microglobulin protects against bleeding-induced oxidative damage in knee arthropathies

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T1 - α1-microglobulin protects against bleeding-induced oxidative damage in knee arthropathies

AU - Larsson, Staffan

AU - Åkerström, Bo

AU - Gram, Magnus

AU - Stefan Lohmander, L.

AU - Struglics, André

PY - 2018/11/16

Y1 - 2018/11/16

N2 - Knee injury increases the risk of developing knee osteoarthritis (OA). Recent evidence suggests involvement of oxidative stress induced by inflammation and bleeding in the joint. This study investigates the role in this process of α1-microglobulin (A1M), a plasma and tissue antioxidant protein with reducing function, and heme- and radical-binding properties. We studied matched knee synovial fluid (sf) and serum (s) samples from 122 subjects (mean age 40 years, 31% females): 10 were knee healthy references, 13 had acute inflammatory arthritis (AIA), 79 knee injury 0-10 years prior to sampling, and 20 knee OA. Using immunoassays, we measured sf-A1M and s-A1M, sf-hemoglobin (sf-Hb), sf-total free heme (sf-Heme), and sf-carbonyl groups (sf-Carbonyl). We explored associations by partial correlation, or linear regression models with adjustments for age, sex and diagnosis, and evaluated diagnostic capacity by area under the receiver operator characteristics curve (AUC). The AIA group had 1.2- to 1.7-fold higher sf-A1M and s-A1M concentrations compared to the other diagnostic groups; other biomarkers showed no between-group differences. sf-A1M and s-A1M were with AUC of 0.76 and 0.78, respectively, diagnostic for AIA. In the injury group, the amount of bleeding in the joint was inversely correlated to time after injury when measured as sf-Heme (r = -0.41, p < 0.001), but not when measured as sf-Hb (r = - 0.19, p = 0.098). A similar inverse association with time after injury was noted for sf-A1M (r = -0.30, p = 0.007), but not for s-A1M and sf-Carbonyl. Linear regression models showed that sf-Heme was more strongly associated with sf-A1M and sf-Carbonyl than sf-Hb. Independent of diagnosis, sf-Heme explained 5.7% of the variability in sf-A1M and 3.0% in the variability in sf-Carbonyl, but appeared unrelated to s-A1M. High sf-A1M and low sf-Heme or sf-Hb were independently associated with low sf-Carbonyl. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that independent of disease, Hb and heme within a knee joint correlates with an increased sf-A1M concentration that appears to be protective of oxidative damage, i.e., a reduction in carbonyl groups. High concentrations of A1M in synovial fluid and serum was further diagnostic for AIA.

AB - Knee injury increases the risk of developing knee osteoarthritis (OA). Recent evidence suggests involvement of oxidative stress induced by inflammation and bleeding in the joint. This study investigates the role in this process of α1-microglobulin (A1M), a plasma and tissue antioxidant protein with reducing function, and heme- and radical-binding properties. We studied matched knee synovial fluid (sf) and serum (s) samples from 122 subjects (mean age 40 years, 31% females): 10 were knee healthy references, 13 had acute inflammatory arthritis (AIA), 79 knee injury 0-10 years prior to sampling, and 20 knee OA. Using immunoassays, we measured sf-A1M and s-A1M, sf-hemoglobin (sf-Hb), sf-total free heme (sf-Heme), and sf-carbonyl groups (sf-Carbonyl). We explored associations by partial correlation, or linear regression models with adjustments for age, sex and diagnosis, and evaluated diagnostic capacity by area under the receiver operator characteristics curve (AUC). The AIA group had 1.2- to 1.7-fold higher sf-A1M and s-A1M concentrations compared to the other diagnostic groups; other biomarkers showed no between-group differences. sf-A1M and s-A1M were with AUC of 0.76 and 0.78, respectively, diagnostic for AIA. In the injury group, the amount of bleeding in the joint was inversely correlated to time after injury when measured as sf-Heme (r = -0.41, p < 0.001), but not when measured as sf-Hb (r = - 0.19, p = 0.098). A similar inverse association with time after injury was noted for sf-A1M (r = -0.30, p = 0.007), but not for s-A1M and sf-Carbonyl. Linear regression models showed that sf-Heme was more strongly associated with sf-A1M and sf-Carbonyl than sf-Hb. Independent of diagnosis, sf-Heme explained 5.7% of the variability in sf-A1M and 3.0% in the variability in sf-Carbonyl, but appeared unrelated to s-A1M. High sf-A1M and low sf-Heme or sf-Hb were independently associated with low sf-Carbonyl. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that independent of disease, Hb and heme within a knee joint correlates with an increased sf-A1M concentration that appears to be protective of oxidative damage, i.e., a reduction in carbonyl groups. High concentrations of A1M in synovial fluid and serum was further diagnostic for AIA.

KW - Heme

KW - Hemoglobin

KW - Hemolysis

KW - Knee injury

KW - Knee osteoarthritis

KW - Oxidative stress

KW - Synovial fluid

KW - Α1-microglobulin

U2 - 10.3389/fphys.2018.01596

DO - 10.3389/fphys.2018.01596

M3 - Article

VL - 9

JO - Frontiers in Physiology

T2 - Frontiers in Physiology

JF - Frontiers in Physiology

SN - 1664-042X

IS - NOV

M1 - 1596

ER -