A complete time-calibrated multi-gene phylogeny of the european butterflies

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With the aim of supporting ecological analyses in butterflies, the third most species-rich superfamily of Lepidoptera, this paper presents the first time-calibrated phylogeny of all 496 extant butterfly species in Europe, including 18 very localised endemics for which no public DNA sequences had been available pre-viously. It is based on a concatenated alignment of the mitochondrial gene COI and up to eleven nuclear gene fragments, using Bayesian inferences of phylogeny. To avoid analytical biases that could result from our region-focussed sampling, our European tree was grafted upon a global genus-level backbone butterfly phylogeny for analyses. In addition to a consensus tree, the posterior distribution of trees and the fully concatenated alignment are provided for future analyses. Altogether a complete phylogenetic framework of European butterflies for use by the ecological and evolutionary communities is presented.


Enheter & grupper
Externa organisationer
  • Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung
  • Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research
  • Göteborgs universitet
  • Gothenburg Global Biodiversity Centre
  • Stockholms universitet

Ämnesklassifikation (UKÄ) – OBLIGATORISK

  • Biologisk systematik


Sidor (från-till)97-124
Antal sidor28
Utgåva nummer938
StatusPublished - 2020
Peer review utfördJa