A cryptic non-GPI-anchored cytosolic isoform of CD59 controls insulin exocytosis in pancreatic β-cells by interaction with SNARE proteins

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T1 - A cryptic non-GPI-anchored cytosolic isoform of CD59 controls insulin exocytosis in pancreatic β-cells by interaction with SNARE proteins

AU - Golec, Ewelina

AU - Rosberg, Rebecca

AU - Zhang, Enming

AU - Renström, Erik

AU - Blom, Anna M

AU - King, Ben C

PY - 2019/11

Y1 - 2019/11

N2 - CD59 is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored cell surface inhibitor of the complement membrane attack complex (MAC). We showed previously that CD59 is highly expressed in pancreatic islets but is down-regulated in rodent models of diabetes. CD59 knockdown but not enzymatic removal of cell surface CD59 led to a loss of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), suggesting that an intracellular pool of CD59 is required. In this current paper, we now report that non-GPI-anchored CD59 is present in the cytoplasm, colocalizes with exocytotic protein vesicle-associated membrane protein 2, and completely rescues GSIS in cells lacking endogenous CD59 expression. The involvement of cytosolic non-GPI-anchored CD59 in GSIS is supported in phosphatidylinositol glycan class A knockout GPI anchor-deficient β-cells, in which GSIS is still CD59 dependent. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated different structural requirements of CD59 for its 2 functions, MAC inhibition and GSIS. Our results suggest that CD59 is retrotranslocated from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cytosol, a process mediated by recognition of trimmed N-linked oligosaccharides, supported by the partial glycosylation of non-GPI-anchored cytosolic CD59 as well as the failure of N-linked glycosylation site mutant CD59 to reach the cytosol or rescue GSIS. This study thus proposes the previously undescribed existence of non-GPI-anchored cytosolic CD59, which is required for insulin secretion.-Golec, E., Rosberg, R., Zhang, E., Renström, E., Blom, A. M., King, B. C. A cryptic non-GPI-anchored cytosolic isoform of CD59 controls insulin exocytosis in pancreatic β-cells by interaction with SNARE proteins.

AB - CD59 is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored cell surface inhibitor of the complement membrane attack complex (MAC). We showed previously that CD59 is highly expressed in pancreatic islets but is down-regulated in rodent models of diabetes. CD59 knockdown but not enzymatic removal of cell surface CD59 led to a loss of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), suggesting that an intracellular pool of CD59 is required. In this current paper, we now report that non-GPI-anchored CD59 is present in the cytoplasm, colocalizes with exocytotic protein vesicle-associated membrane protein 2, and completely rescues GSIS in cells lacking endogenous CD59 expression. The involvement of cytosolic non-GPI-anchored CD59 in GSIS is supported in phosphatidylinositol glycan class A knockout GPI anchor-deficient β-cells, in which GSIS is still CD59 dependent. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated different structural requirements of CD59 for its 2 functions, MAC inhibition and GSIS. Our results suggest that CD59 is retrotranslocated from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cytosol, a process mediated by recognition of trimmed N-linked oligosaccharides, supported by the partial glycosylation of non-GPI-anchored cytosolic CD59 as well as the failure of N-linked glycosylation site mutant CD59 to reach the cytosol or rescue GSIS. This study thus proposes the previously undescribed existence of non-GPI-anchored cytosolic CD59, which is required for insulin secretion.-Golec, E., Rosberg, R., Zhang, E., Renström, E., Blom, A. M., King, B. C. A cryptic non-GPI-anchored cytosolic isoform of CD59 controls insulin exocytosis in pancreatic β-cells by interaction with SNARE proteins.

KW - Animals

KW - CD59 Antigens/genetics

KW - CHO Cells

KW - Cricetulus

KW - Cytosol/metabolism

KW - Exocytosis

KW - Insulin/genetics

KW - Insulin Secretion

KW - Insulin-Secreting Cells/cytology

KW - Oligosaccharides/genetics

KW - Rats

KW - SNARE Proteins/genetics

U2 - 10.1096/fj.201901007R

DO - 10.1096/fj.201901007R

M3 - Article

C2 - 31412214

VL - 33

SP - 12425

EP - 12434

JO - FASEB Journal

JF - FASEB Journal

SN - 1530-6860

IS - 11

ER -