A numerical comparison of protective measures against external fire spread

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The impact of different passive protective measures against external vertical fire spread was investigated using the numerical tool Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS). The numerical study was divided into a validation study and a comparative analysis. The validation study was performed to evaluate FDS as a calculation tool for modelling external vertical fire spread and was conducted using experimental results from a large-scale fire test done on a SP FIRE 105 test rig at SP, Sweden. It was concluded that FDS 6.2.0 could reproduce the experimental results with a reasonable level of detail. In the comparative analysis, the impact on the external fire from a smaller apartment was studied in FDS with different configurations of horizontal projections and spandrels in the building exterior. Also, the effects of an upper and lower facade set-back configuration were studied. The results show that facade solutions based on a horizontal projection or an upper facade set-back configuration result in comparable or better protection compared with a defined spandrel height. The results also show that a spandrel height of at least 1.2 m can be replaced by a 60-cm-deep horizontal projection, given that the balcony is wider than the underlying opening.


  • Markus Nilsson
  • Bjarne Husted
  • Axel Mossberg
  • Johan Anderson
  • Robert Jansson Mcnamee
Enheter & grupper
Externa organisationer
  • SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden
  • Brandskyddslaget AB

Ämnesklassifikation (UKÄ) – OBLIGATORISK

  • Annan samhällsbyggnadsteknik


Sidor (från-till)493-507
TidskriftFire and Materials
Utgåva nummer5
Tidigt onlinedatum2018 jan 1
StatusPublished - 2018 aug
Peer review utfördJa