A randomized study of the compression hip screw and gamma nail in 426 fractures
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A prospective, randomized study comparing the compression hip screw with the Gamma nail in the treatment of 426 intertrochanteric fractures is reported. The median patient age was 80 years, and 71 % were women The compression hip screw operation took less time except in Evans Type 5 fractures. Blood loss generally was less in the compression hip screw group except in patients with Type 5 fractures. The most frequent surgical problem for patients in the Gamma group was problems with distal locking. Cephalic position of the femoral head screw and cut-out were seen more often in the Gamma nail group. The Gamma nail more frequently preserved the fracture position obtained perioperatively. Whether there was distal locking of the Gamma nail in unstable fractures did not seem to affect the healing rate. Additional fissures or fractures in the proximal femur occurred during five Gamma nail operations and two compression hip screw operations. Postoperative walking ability did not differ between the groups. At 6 months 88% of the fractures were healed. In less comminuted fractures, the compression hip screw method is the preferred method of treatment whereas the Gamma nail is an alternative treatment for more comminuted Evans Type 5 fractures.