Aerococci and aerococcal infections.
Forskningsoutput: Tidskriftsbidrag › Översiktsartikel
Aerococcus is a genus that comprises seven species, of which Aerococcus urinae, and Aerococcus sanguinicola are emerging human pathogens. Aerococci are gram positive cocci that are easily misidentified as streptococci or staphylococci, and thus the incidence of aerococcal infections has been underestimated. With the introduction of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) clinical microbiologists now have access to a rapid and accurate method to identify aerococci. A. urinae and A. sanguinicola are isolated in a small proportion of urinary specimens in many laboratories and many patients with bacteriuria with aerococci have symptoms of urinary tract infection (UTI). A. urinae, and also A. sanguinicola, cause invasive infections including infective endocarditis (IE) with many reported fatalities. Especially older men with urinary tract abnormalities are at risk for bacteraemia with A. urinae but the prognosis of bacteraemia without IE is favourable. Penicillin is appropriate for treatment of invasive infections and in IE, addition of an aminoglycoside should be considered. Treatment of UTI with aerococci is complicated by uncertainty about the effect of trimethoprim-sulphametoxazole and fluoroquinolones on aerococci. This review will discuss identification of Aerococcus spp., antibiotic resistance, the clinical presentation and management of aerococcal infections as well as the virulence mechanisms of these bacteria.