Age at Menopause, Reproductive Life Span, and Type 2 Diabetes Risk

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title = "Age at Menopause, Reproductive Life Span, and Type 2 Diabetes Risk",
abstract = "OBJECTIVE-Age at menopause is an important determinant of future health outcomes, but little is known about its relationship with type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of menopausal age and reproductive life span (menopausal age minus menarcheal age) with diabetes risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-Data were obtained from the InterAct study, a prospective case-cohort study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. A total of 3,691 postmenopausal type 2 diabetic case subjects and 4,408 subcohort members were included in the analysis, with a median follow-up of 11 years. Prentice weighted Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for age, known risk factors for diabetes, and reproductive factors, and effect modification by BMI, waist circumference, and smoking was studied. RESULTS-Mean (SD) age of the subcohort was 59.2 (5.8) years. After multivariable adjustment, hazard ratios (HRs) of type 2 diabetes were 1.32 (95{\%} CI 1.04-1.69), 1.09 (0.90-1.31), 0.97 (0.86-1.10), and 0.85 (0.70-1.03) for women with menopause at ages <40, 40-44, 45-49, and >= 55 years, respectively, relative to those with menopause at age 50-54 years. The HR per SD younger age at menopause was 1.08 (1.02-1.14). Similarly, a shorter reproductive life span was associated with a higher diabetes risk (HR per SD lower reproductive life span 1.06 [ 1.01-1.12]). No effect modification by BMI, waist circumference, or smoking was observed (P interaction all > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS-Early menopause is associated with a greater risk of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 36:1012-1019, 2013",
author = "Brand, {Judith S.} and {van der Schouw}, {Yvonne T.} and Onland-Moret, {N. Charlotte} and Sharp, {Stephen J.} and Ong, {Ken K.} and Kay-Tee Khaw and Eva Ardanaz and Pilar Amiano and Heiner Boeing and Maria-Dolores Chirlaque and Francoise Clavel-Chapelon and Crowe, {Francesca L.} and {de Lauzon-Guillain}, Blandine and Duell, {Eric J.} and Guy Fagherazzi and Paul Franks and Sara Grioni and Leif Groop and Rudolf Kaaks and Key, {Timothy J.} and Peter Nilsson and Kim Overvad and Domenico Palli and Salvatore Panico and Quiros, {J. Ramon} and Olov Rolandsson and Carlotta Sacerdote and Maria-Jose Sanchez and Nadia Slimani and Birgit Teucher and Anne Tjonneland and Rosario Tumino and {van der A}, {Daphne L.} and Feskens, {Edith J. M.} and Claudia Langenberg and Forouhi, {Nita G.} and Elio Riboli and Wareham, {Nicholas J.}",
year = "2013",
doi = "10.2337/dc12-1020",
language = "English",
volume = "36",
pages = "1012--1019",
journal = "Diabetes Reviews",
issn = "1935-5548",
publisher = "American Diabetes Association",
number = "4",