Airways exudation of plasma macromolecules: Innate defense, epithelial regeneration, and asthma

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Abstract

This review discusses in vivo airway aspects of plasma exudation in relation to current views on epithelial permeability and epithelial regeneration in health and disease. Microvascular-epithelial exudation of bulk plasma proteins characteristically occurs in asthmatic patients, being especially pronounced in those with severe and exacerbating asthma. Healthy human and guinea pig airways challenged by noninjurious histamine-leukotriene–type autacoids also respond through prompt mucosal exudation of nonsieved plasma macromolecules. Contrary to current beliefs, epithelial permeability in the opposite direction (ie, absorption of inhaled molecules) has not been increased in patients with asthma and allergic rhinitis or in acutely exuding healthy airways. A slightly increased subepithelial hydrostatic pressure produces such unidirectional outward perviousness to macromolecules. Lack of increased absorption permeability in asthmatic patients can further be reconciled with occurrence of epithelial shedding, leaving small patches of denuded basement membrane. Counteracting escalating barrier breaks, plasma exudation promptly covers the denuded patches. Here it creates and sustains a biologically active barrier involving a neutrophil-rich, fibrin-fibronectin net. Furthermore, in the plasma-derived milieu, all epithelial cell types bordering the denuded patch dedifferentiate and migrate from all sides to cover the denuded basement membrane. However, this speedy epithelial regeneration can come at a cost. Guinea pig in vivo studies demonstrate that patches of epithelial denudation regeneration are exudation hot spots evoking asthma-like features, including recruitment/activation of granulocytes, proliferation of fibrocytes/smooth muscle cells, and basement membrane thickening. In conclusion, nonsieved plasma macromolecules can operate on the intact airway mucosa as potent components of first-line innate immunity responses. Exuded plasma also takes center stage in epithelial regeneration. When exaggerated, epithelial regeneration can contribute to the inception and development of asthma.

Detaljer

Författare
Enheter & grupper
Externa organisationer
  • Skåne University Hospital
Forskningsområden

Ämnesklassifikation (UKÄ) – OBLIGATORISK

  • Lungmedicin och allergi

Nyckelord

Originalspråkengelska
Sidor (från-till)1271-1286
TidskriftJournal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Volym143
Utgivningsnummer4
Tidigt onlinedatum2018 aug 29
StatusPublished - 2019
PublikationskategoriForskning
Peer review utfördJa