American geography of opportunity reveals European origins

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American geography of opportunity reveals European origins. / Berger, Thor; Engzell, Per.

I: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 116, Nr. 13, 2019, s. 6045-6050.

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TY - JOUR

T1 - American geography of opportunity reveals European origins

AU - Berger, Thor

AU - Engzell, Per

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - A large literature documents how intergenerational mobility—the degree to which (dis)advantage is passed on from parents to children—varies across and within countries. Less is known about the origin or persistence of such differences. We show that US areas populated by descendants to European immigrants have similar levels of income equality and mobility as the countries their forebears came from: highest in areas dominated by descendants to Scandinavian and German immigrants, lower in places with French or Italian heritage, and lower still in areas with British roots. Similar variation in mobility is found for the black population and when analyzing causal place effects, suggesting that mobility differences arise at the community level and extend beyond descendants of European immigrant groups. Our findings indicate that the geography of US opportunity may have deeper historical roots than previously recognized.

AB - A large literature documents how intergenerational mobility—the degree to which (dis)advantage is passed on from parents to children—varies across and within countries. Less is known about the origin or persistence of such differences. We show that US areas populated by descendants to European immigrants have similar levels of income equality and mobility as the countries their forebears came from: highest in areas dominated by descendants to Scandinavian and German immigrants, lower in places with French or Italian heritage, and lower still in areas with British roots. Similar variation in mobility is found for the black population and when analyzing causal place effects, suggesting that mobility differences arise at the community level and extend beyond descendants of European immigrant groups. Our findings indicate that the geography of US opportunity may have deeper historical roots than previously recognized.

KW - Great gatsby curve

KW - Immigration

KW - Income inequality

KW - Intergenerational mobility

KW - Melting pot

U2 - 10.1073/pnas.1810893116

DO - 10.1073/pnas.1810893116

M3 - Article

VL - 116

SP - 6045

EP - 6050

JO - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

T2 - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

JF - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

SN - 1091-6490

IS - 13

ER -