Application of the PIV technique to measurements around and inside a forming drop in a liquid–liquid system
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A particle image velocimetry (PIV) method has been developed to measure the velocity field inside and around a forming drop with a final diameter of 1 mm. The system, including a microscope, was used to image silicon oil drops forming in a continuous phase of water and glycerol. Fluorescent particles with a diameter of 1 μm were used as seeding particles. The oil was forced through a 200 μm diameter glass capillary into a laminar cross-flow in a rectangular channel. The velocity field was computed with a double-frame cross-correlation function down to a spatial resolution of 21 × 21 μm. The method can be used to calculate the shear stress induced at the interface by the cross-flow of the continuous phase and the main forces involved in the drop formation process.