Aqueous phase behavior and dispersed nanoparticles of diglycerol monooleate/glycerol dioleate mixtures
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The first part of this study concerns the aqueous phase behavior of mixtures of diglycerol monooleate (DGMO) and glycerol dioleate (GDO) examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The ternary phase diagram displays a multitude of liquid crystalline phases (polymorphism). With increasing GDO content the following phase sequence was observed: lamellar (L-alpha); two reversed bicontinuous cubic phases (Q(230) and Q(224)); reversed hexagonal (Fiji); the reversed micellar (L-2) phase. The second part deals with the preparation and characterization of aqueous dispersions of the reversed hexagonal phase in the presence of the nonionic triblock copolymer Pluronic F127. Submicrometer-sized monocrystalline H-II phase particles were obtained, as evidenced by cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), laser diffraction, and XRD, by use of a simple and reproducible preparation method including a heat-treatment step. Moreover, the particle size distributions of the H-II phase nanoparticle dispersions were narrow as determined by laser diffraction measurements. Using XRD, we show that the polymeric stabilizer is depleted from the core of the hexagonal particles and preferentially located at the surface. It is concluded that the preferential distribution of stabilizing agents at particle surfaces is a prerequisite for the formation of structurally well-defined and kinetically stable H-II phase particles (Hexosome).