Assessing the impact of a hilly environment on depressive symptoms among community-dwelling older adults in japan: A cross-sectional study

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Although some neighborhood environmental factors have been found to affect depressive symptoms, few studies have focused on the impact of living in a hilly environment, i.e., land slope, on depressive symptoms among rural older adults. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate whether a land slope is associated with depressive symptoms among older adults living in rural areas. Data were collected from 935 participants, aged 65 years and older, who lived in Shimane prefecture, Japan. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and defined on the basis of an SDS score ≥ 40. Land slopes within a 400 m network buffer were assessed using geographic information systems. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of depressive symptoms were estimated using logistic regression. A total of 215 (23.0%) participants reported depressive symptoms. The land slope was positively associated with depressive symptoms (OR = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.01–1.08) after adjusting for all confounders. In a rural setting, living in a hillier environment was associated with depressive symptoms among community-dwelling older adults in Japan.


Enheter & grupper
Externa organisationer
  • Shimane University
  • Kyoto Sangyo University
  • Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

Ämnesklassifikation (UKÄ) – OBLIGATORISK

  • Geriatrik
  • Folkhälsovetenskap, global hälsa, socialmedicin och epidemiologi


TidskriftInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Utgåva nummer9
StatusPublished - 2021 maj 1
Peer review utfördJa