Assessment of long-term and recent pesticide exposure among rural school children in Nicaragua

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Assessment of long-term and recent pesticide exposure among rural school children in Nicaragua. / Rodriguez, Teresa; van Wendel de Joode, Berna; Lindh, Christian; Rojas, Marianela; Lundberg, Ingvar; Wesseling, Catharina.

I: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 69, Nr. 2, 2012, s. 119-125.

Forskningsoutput: TidskriftsbidragArtikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift

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Rodriguez, Teresa ; van Wendel de Joode, Berna ; Lindh, Christian ; Rojas, Marianela ; Lundberg, Ingvar ; Wesseling, Catharina. / Assessment of long-term and recent pesticide exposure among rural school children in Nicaragua. I: Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2012 ; Vol. 69, Nr. 2. s. 119-125.

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Assessment of long-term and recent pesticide exposure among rural school children in Nicaragua

AU - Rodriguez, Teresa

AU - van Wendel de Joode, Berna

AU - Lindh, Christian

AU - Rojas, Marianela

AU - Lundberg, Ingvar

AU - Wesseling, Catharina

PY - 2012

Y1 - 2012

N2 - Objective This study assessed pesticide exposure of children in rural Nicaragua in relation to parental pesticide use, from around conception to current school age, as part of an epidemiological evaluation of neurodevelopment effects. Methods We included 132 children whose parents were subsistence farmers or plantation workers, or had an agricultural history. As proxies for children's long-term exposures, we constructed cumulative parental pesticide-specific use indices for periods before and after the child's birth from data obtained using an icon-calendar-based questionnaire, of application hours (h) for plantation workers and subsistence farmers, and of kilograms of active ingredients (ai) only for subsistence farmers. Pesticide residues of TCPY, 3-PBA and 2,4-D were analysed in children's urine as indicators for current exposures. Results Life-time indices were highest for the organophosphates chlorpyrifos (median 114 h (min 2; max 1584), 19.2 kg ai (min 0.37; max 548)) and methamidophos (84 h (6; 1964), 12.2 kg ai (0.30; 780)). The P50 values of children's urinary residues were 3.7 mu g/g creatinine for TCPY, 2.8 for 3-PBA and 0.9 for 2,4-D; TCPY values are comparable with those in other countries, but 3-PBA and 2,4-D are considerably higher. The maximum levels for all three pesticides are the highest reported for children. Residues increased on days after application, but most high residue levels were unrelated to parental pesticide applications. Conclusion Urinary pesticide residues reveal high environmental exposure among children in rural Nicaragua. The quantitative parental pesticide use indices as proxies for children's exposures during different periods may be useful for the evaluation of developmental health effects.

AB - Objective This study assessed pesticide exposure of children in rural Nicaragua in relation to parental pesticide use, from around conception to current school age, as part of an epidemiological evaluation of neurodevelopment effects. Methods We included 132 children whose parents were subsistence farmers or plantation workers, or had an agricultural history. As proxies for children's long-term exposures, we constructed cumulative parental pesticide-specific use indices for periods before and after the child's birth from data obtained using an icon-calendar-based questionnaire, of application hours (h) for plantation workers and subsistence farmers, and of kilograms of active ingredients (ai) only for subsistence farmers. Pesticide residues of TCPY, 3-PBA and 2,4-D were analysed in children's urine as indicators for current exposures. Results Life-time indices were highest for the organophosphates chlorpyrifos (median 114 h (min 2; max 1584), 19.2 kg ai (min 0.37; max 548)) and methamidophos (84 h (6; 1964), 12.2 kg ai (0.30; 780)). The P50 values of children's urinary residues were 3.7 mu g/g creatinine for TCPY, 2.8 for 3-PBA and 0.9 for 2,4-D; TCPY values are comparable with those in other countries, but 3-PBA and 2,4-D are considerably higher. The maximum levels for all three pesticides are the highest reported for children. Residues increased on days after application, but most high residue levels were unrelated to parental pesticide applications. Conclusion Urinary pesticide residues reveal high environmental exposure among children in rural Nicaragua. The quantitative parental pesticide use indices as proxies for children's exposures during different periods may be useful for the evaluation of developmental health effects.

U2 - 10.1136/oem.2010.062539

DO - 10.1136/oem.2010.062539

M3 - Article

VL - 69

SP - 119

EP - 125

JO - Occupational and Environmental Medicine

JF - Occupational and Environmental Medicine

SN - 1470-7926

IS - 2

ER -