Attosecond pulse shaping using a seeded free-electron laser

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Attosecond pulses are central to the investigation of valence- and core-electron dynamics on their natural timescales1–3. The reproducible generation and characterization of attosecond waveforms has been demonstrated so far only through the process of high-order harmonic generation4–7. Several methods for shaping attosecond waveforms have been proposed, including the use of metallic filters8,9, multilayer mirrors10 and manipulation of the driving field11. However, none of these approaches allows the flexible manipulation of the temporal characteristics of the attosecond waveforms, and they suffer from the low conversion efficiency of the high-order harmonic generation process. Free-electron lasers, by contrast, deliver femtosecond, extreme-ultraviolet and X-ray pulses with energies ranging from tens of microjoules to a few millijoules12,13. Recent experiments have shown that they can generate subfemtosecond spikes, but with temporal characteristics that change shot-to-shot14–16. Here we report reproducible generation of high-energy (microjoule level) attosecond waveforms using a seeded free-electron laser17. We demonstrate amplitude and phase manipulation of the harmonic components of an attosecond pulse train in combination with an approach for its temporal reconstruction. The results presented here open the way to performing attosecond time-resolved experiments with free-electron lasers.


  • Praveen Kumar Maroju
  • Cesare Grazioli
  • Michele Di Fraia
  • Matteo Moioli
  • Dominik Ertel
  • Hamed Ahmadi
  • Oksana Plekan
  • Paola Finetti
  • Enrico Allaria
  • Luca Giannessi
  • Giovanni De Ninno
  • Carlo Spezzani
  • Giuseppe Penco
  • Simone Spampinati
  • Alexander Demidovich
  • Miltcho B. Danailov
  • Roberto Borghes
  • George Kourousias
  • Carlos Eduardo Sanches Dos Reis
  • Fulvio Billé
  • Alberto A. Lutman
  • Richard J. Squibb
  • Raimund Feifel
  • Paolo Carpeggiani
  • Maurizio Reduzzi
  • Tommaso Mazza
  • Michael Meyer
  • Neven Ibrakovic
  • Tamás Csizmadia
  • Mathieu Dumergue
  • Sergei Kühn
  • Harshitha Nandiga Gopalakrishna
  • Daehyun You
  • Kiyoshi Ueda
  • Marie Labeye
  • Jens Egebjerg Bækhøj
  • Kenneth J. Schafer
  • Elena V. Gryzlova
  • Alexei N. Grum-Grzhimailo
  • Kevin C. Prince
  • Carlo Callegari
  • Giuseppe Sansone
Enheter & grupper
Externa organisationer
  • Albert-Ludwigs University Freiburg
  • Istituto di Struttura della Materia ISM
  • Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste
  • Frascati National Laboratory of INFN
  • University of Nova Gorica
  • Göteborgs universitet
  • Vienna University of Technology
  • Polytechnic University of Milan
  • European XFEL GmbH
  • Tohoku University
  • Louisiana State University
  • Sternberg Astronomical Institute
  • ELI Attosecond Light Pulse Source (ELI-ALPS)

Ämnesklassifikation (UKÄ) – OBLIGATORISK

  • Atom- och molekylfysik och optik
Sidor (från-till)386–391
StatusPublished - 2020
Peer review utfördJa