Autonomic nervous control of the urinary bladder
Forskningsoutput: Tidskriftsbidrag › Översiktsartikel
The autonomic nervous system plays an important role in the regulation of the urinary bladder function. Under physiological circumstances, noradrenaline, acting mainly on beta 3-adrenoceptors in the detrusor and on a1A-adrenoceptors in the bladder outflow tract, promotes urine storage, whereas neuronally released acetylcholine acting mainly on M3 receptors promotes bladder emptying. Under pathophysiological conditions, however, this system may change in several ways. Firstly, there may be plasticity at the levels of innervation and receptor expression and function. Secondly, non-neuronal acetylcholine synthesis and release from the urothelium may occur during the storage phase, leading to a concomitant exposure of detrusor smooth muscle, urothelium and afferent nerves to acetylcholine and noradrenaline. This can cause interactions between the adrenergic and cholinergic system, which have been studied mostly at the post-junctional smooth muscle level until now. The implications of such plasticity are being discussed.