Avian influenza surveillance with FTA cards: Field methods, biosafety, and transportation issues solved

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Avian influenza surveillance with FTA cards : Field methods, biosafety, and transportation issues solved. / Kraus, Robert H S; van Hooft, Pim; Waldenström, Jonas; Latorre-Margalef, Neus; Ydenberg, Ronald C; Prins, Herbert H T.

I: Journal of Visualized Experiments, Nr. 54, e2832, 08.2011.

Forskningsoutput: TidskriftsbidragArtikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift

Harvard

Kraus, RHS, van Hooft, P, Waldenström, J, Latorre-Margalef, N, Ydenberg, RC & Prins, HHT 2011, 'Avian influenza surveillance with FTA cards: Field methods, biosafety, and transportation issues solved', Journal of Visualized Experiments, nr. 54, e2832. https://doi.org/10.3791/2832

APA

Kraus, R. H. S., van Hooft, P., Waldenström, J., Latorre-Margalef, N., Ydenberg, R. C., & Prins, H. H. T. (2011). Avian influenza surveillance with FTA cards: Field methods, biosafety, and transportation issues solved. Journal of Visualized Experiments, (54), [e2832]. https://doi.org/10.3791/2832

CBE

Kraus RHS, van Hooft P, Waldenström J, Latorre-Margalef N, Ydenberg RC, Prins HHT. 2011. Avian influenza surveillance with FTA cards: Field methods, biosafety, and transportation issues solved. Journal of Visualized Experiments. (54):Article e2832. https://doi.org/10.3791/2832

MLA

Vancouver

Kraus RHS, van Hooft P, Waldenström J, Latorre-Margalef N, Ydenberg RC, Prins HHT. Avian influenza surveillance with FTA cards: Field methods, biosafety, and transportation issues solved. Journal of Visualized Experiments. 2011 aug;(54). e2832. https://doi.org/10.3791/2832

Author

Kraus, Robert H S ; van Hooft, Pim ; Waldenström, Jonas ; Latorre-Margalef, Neus ; Ydenberg, Ronald C ; Prins, Herbert H T. / Avian influenza surveillance with FTA cards : Field methods, biosafety, and transportation issues solved. I: Journal of Visualized Experiments. 2011 ; Nr. 54.

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Avian influenza surveillance with FTA cards

T2 - Field methods, biosafety, and transportation issues solved

AU - Kraus, Robert H S

AU - van Hooft, Pim

AU - Waldenström, Jonas

AU - Latorre-Margalef, Neus

AU - Ydenberg, Ronald C

AU - Prins, Herbert H T

PY - 2011/8

Y1 - 2011/8

N2 - Avian Influenza Viruses (AIVs) infect many mammals, including humans1. These AIVs are diverse in their natural hosts, harboring almost all possible viral subtypes2. Human pandemics of flu originally stem from AIVs3. Many fatal human cases during the H5N1 outbreaks in recent years were reported. Lately, a new AIV related strain swept through the human population, causing the 'swine flu epidemic'4. Although human trading and transportation activity seems to be responsible for the spread of highly pathogenic strains5, dispersal can also partly be attributed to wild birds6, 7. However, the actual reservoir of all AIV strains is wild birds. In reaction to this and in face of severe commercial losses in the poultry industry, large surveillance programs have been implemented globally to collect information on the ecology of AIVs, and to install early warning systems to detect certain highly pathogenic strains8-12. Traditional virological methods require viruses to be intact and cultivated before analysis. This necessitates strict cold chains with deep freezers and heavy biosafety procedures to be in place during transport. Long-term surveillance is therefore usually restricted to a few field stations close to well equipped laboratories. Remote areas cannot be sampled unless logistically cumbersome procedures are implemented. These problems have been recognised13, 14 and the use of alternative storage and transport strategies investigated (alcohols or guanidine)15-17. Recently, Kraus et al.18 introduced a method to collect, store and transport AIV samples, based on a special filter paper. FTA cards19 preserve RNA on a dry storage basis20 and render pathogens inactive upon contact21. This study showed that FTA cards can be used to detect AIV RNA in reverse-transcription PCR and that the resulting cDNA could be sequenced and virus genes and determined. In the study of Kraus et al.18 a laboratory isolate of AIV was used, and samples were handled individually. In the extension presented here, faecal samples from wild birds from the duck trap at the Ottenby Bird Observatory (SE Sweden) were tested directly to illustrate the usefulness of the methods under field conditions. Catching of ducks and sample collection by cloacal swabs is demonstrated. The current protocol includes up-scaling of the work flow from single tube handling to a 96-well design. Although less sensitive than the traditional methods, the method of FTA cards provides an excellent supplement to large surveillance schemes. It allows collection and analysis of samples from anywhere in the world, without the need to maintaining a cool chain or safety regulations with respect to shipping of hazardous reagents, such as alcohol or guanidine.

AB - Avian Influenza Viruses (AIVs) infect many mammals, including humans1. These AIVs are diverse in their natural hosts, harboring almost all possible viral subtypes2. Human pandemics of flu originally stem from AIVs3. Many fatal human cases during the H5N1 outbreaks in recent years were reported. Lately, a new AIV related strain swept through the human population, causing the 'swine flu epidemic'4. Although human trading and transportation activity seems to be responsible for the spread of highly pathogenic strains5, dispersal can also partly be attributed to wild birds6, 7. However, the actual reservoir of all AIV strains is wild birds. In reaction to this and in face of severe commercial losses in the poultry industry, large surveillance programs have been implemented globally to collect information on the ecology of AIVs, and to install early warning systems to detect certain highly pathogenic strains8-12. Traditional virological methods require viruses to be intact and cultivated before analysis. This necessitates strict cold chains with deep freezers and heavy biosafety procedures to be in place during transport. Long-term surveillance is therefore usually restricted to a few field stations close to well equipped laboratories. Remote areas cannot be sampled unless logistically cumbersome procedures are implemented. These problems have been recognised13, 14 and the use of alternative storage and transport strategies investigated (alcohols or guanidine)15-17. Recently, Kraus et al.18 introduced a method to collect, store and transport AIV samples, based on a special filter paper. FTA cards19 preserve RNA on a dry storage basis20 and render pathogens inactive upon contact21. This study showed that FTA cards can be used to detect AIV RNA in reverse-transcription PCR and that the resulting cDNA could be sequenced and virus genes and determined. In the study of Kraus et al.18 a laboratory isolate of AIV was used, and samples were handled individually. In the extension presented here, faecal samples from wild birds from the duck trap at the Ottenby Bird Observatory (SE Sweden) were tested directly to illustrate the usefulness of the methods under field conditions. Catching of ducks and sample collection by cloacal swabs is demonstrated. The current protocol includes up-scaling of the work flow from single tube handling to a 96-well design. Although less sensitive than the traditional methods, the method of FTA cards provides an excellent supplement to large surveillance schemes. It allows collection and analysis of samples from anywhere in the world, without the need to maintaining a cool chain or safety regulations with respect to shipping of hazardous reagents, such as alcohol or guanidine.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=80355125203&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3791/2832

DO - 10.3791/2832

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:80355125203

JO - Journal of Visualized Experiments

JF - Journal of Visualized Experiments

SN - 1940-087X

IS - 54

M1 - e2832

ER -