Biodegradability and toxicity assessment of trans-chlordane photochemical treatment.
Forskningsoutput: Tidskriftsbidrag › Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift
The removal of trans-chlordane (C(10)H(6)Cl(8)) from aqueous solutions was studied using UV, UV/H(2)O(2), UV/H(2)O(2)/Fe(2+), UV/TiO(2), or UV/TiO(2)/H(2)O(2) treatment using either UV/Vis blue lamps or UVC lamps (254nm). H(2)O(2), FeSO(4) and TiO(2) were added at 1700, 456, and 2500mgL(-1), respectively. trans-Chlordane was not significantly removed in non-irradiated controls and in samples irradiated with UV/Vis. It was also not removed in the absence of surfactant Triton X-114 added at 250mgL(-1). In the presence of the surfactant, trans-chlordane concentration was reduced by 95-100% after 48h of UVC and UVC/H(2)O(2) treatments and 70-80% after UVC/H(2)O(2)/Fe(2+), UVC/TiO(2) and UVC/H(2)O(2)/TiO(2) treatments. Based on these results, UVC, UVC/H(2)O(2) and UVC/TiO(2) treatments were further investigated. UVC treatment supported the highest pollutant removal (100% in 48h), dechlorination efficiency (81% in 48h), and detoxification to Lepidium sativum seed germination and activated sludge respiration although irradiated samples remained toxic to Chlorella vulgaris. Biodegradation of the UVC irradiated samples removed the source of algae toxicity but this could not be clearly attributed to the removal of trans-chlordane photoproducts because the surfactant interfered with the chemical and biological assays. Evidence was found that trans-chlordane was photodegraded through photolysis causing its successive dechlorination. trans-Chlordane removal was well described by a first order kinetic model at a rate of 0.21+/-0.01h(-1) at the 95% confidence interval.