Blood cadmium, mercury, and lead in children: An international comparison of cities in six European countries, and China, Ecuador, and Morocco

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@article{5f0d890783344fd1b70b87c035f5f658,
title = "Blood cadmium, mercury, and lead in children: An international comparison of cities in six European countries, and China, Ecuador, and Morocco",
abstract = "Children's blood-lead concentration (B-Pb) is well studied, but little is known about cadmium (B-Cd) and mercury (B-Hg), in particular for central Europe. Such information is necessary for risk assessment and management. Therefore, we here describe and compare B-Pb, B-Cd and B-Hg in children in six European, and three non-European cities, and identify determinants of these exposures. About 50 school children (7-14 years) from each city were recruited (totally 433) in 2007-2008. Interview and questionnaire data were obtained. A blood sample was analyzed: only two laboratories with strict quality control were used. The European cities showed only minor differences for B-Cd (geometric means 0.11-0.17 mu g/L) and B-Pb (14-20 mu g/L), but larger for B-Hg (0.12-0.94 mu g/L). Corresponding means for the non-European countries were 0.21-0.26, 32-71, and 0.3-3.2 mu g/L, respectively. For B-Cd in European samples, traffic intensity close to home was a statistically significant determinant, for B-Hg fish consumption and amalgam fillings, and for B-Pb sex (boys higher). This study shows that European city children's B-Cd and B-Pb vary only little between countries; B-Hg differs considerably, due to varying tooth restoration practices and fish intake. Traffic intensity seemed to be a determinant for B-Cd. The metal concentrations were low from a risk perspective but the chosen non-European cities showed higher concentrations than the cities in Europe. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.",
keywords = "Biomonitoring, Exposure, Children, Lead, Mercury, Cadmium",
author = "Frantiska Hruba and Ulf Str{\"o}mberg and Milena Cerna and Chunying Chen and Florencia Harari and Raul Harari and Milena Horvat and Kvetoslava Koppova and Andreja Kos and Andrea Krskova and Mladen Krsnik and Jawhar Laamech and Yu-Feng Li and Lina L{\"o}fmark and Thomas Lundh and Nils-Goran Lundstrom and Badiaa Lyoussi and Darja Mazej and Josko Osredkar and Krystyna Pawlas and Natalia Pawlas and Adam Prokopowicz and Gerda Rentschler and Vera Spevackova and Zdravko Spiric and Janja Tratnik and Staffan Skerfving and Bergdahl, {Ingvar A.}",
year = "2012",
doi = "10.1016/j.envint.2011.12.001",
language = "English",
volume = "41",
pages = "29--34",
journal = "Environmental International",
issn = "1873-6750",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}