Blood cadmium, mercury, and lead in children: An international comparison of cities in six European countries, and China, Ecuador, and Morocco

Forskningsoutput: TidskriftsbidragArtikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift

Standard

Blood cadmium, mercury, and lead in children: An international comparison of cities in six European countries, and China, Ecuador, and Morocco. / Hruba, Frantiska; Strömberg, Ulf; Cerna, Milena; Chen, Chunying; Harari, Florencia; Harari, Raul; Horvat, Milena; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Kos, Andreja; Krskova, Andrea; Krsnik, Mladen; Laamech, Jawhar; Li, Yu-Feng; Löfmark, Lina; Lundh, Thomas; Lundstrom, Nils-Goran; Lyoussi, Badiaa; Mazej, Darja; Osredkar, Josko; Pawlas, Krystyna; Pawlas, Natalia; Prokopowicz, Adam; Rentschler, Gerda; Spevackova, Vera; Spiric, Zdravko; Tratnik, Janja; Skerfving, Staffan; Bergdahl, Ingvar A.

I: Environment International, Vol. 41, 2012, s. 29-34.

Forskningsoutput: TidskriftsbidragArtikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift

Harvard

Hruba, F, Strömberg, U, Cerna, M, Chen, C, Harari, F, Harari, R, Horvat, M, Koppova, K, Kos, A, Krskova, A, Krsnik, M, Laamech, J, Li, Y-F, Löfmark, L, Lundh, T, Lundstrom, N-G, Lyoussi, B, Mazej, D, Osredkar, J, Pawlas, K, Pawlas, N, Prokopowicz, A, Rentschler, G, Spevackova, V, Spiric, Z, Tratnik, J, Skerfving, S & Bergdahl, IA 2012, 'Blood cadmium, mercury, and lead in children: An international comparison of cities in six European countries, and China, Ecuador, and Morocco', Environment International, vol. 41, s. 29-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2011.12.001

APA

CBE

Hruba F, Strömberg U, Cerna M, Chen C, Harari F, Harari R, Horvat M, Koppova K, Kos A, Krskova A, Krsnik M, Laamech J, Li Y-F, Löfmark L, Lundh T, Lundstrom N-G, Lyoussi B, Mazej D, Osredkar J, Pawlas K, Pawlas N, Prokopowicz A, Rentschler G, Spevackova V, Spiric Z, Tratnik J, Skerfving S, Bergdahl IA. 2012. Blood cadmium, mercury, and lead in children: An international comparison of cities in six European countries, and China, Ecuador, and Morocco. Environment International. 41:29-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2011.12.001

MLA

Vancouver

Author

Hruba, Frantiska ; Strömberg, Ulf ; Cerna, Milena ; Chen, Chunying ; Harari, Florencia ; Harari, Raul ; Horvat, Milena ; Koppova, Kvetoslava ; Kos, Andreja ; Krskova, Andrea ; Krsnik, Mladen ; Laamech, Jawhar ; Li, Yu-Feng ; Löfmark, Lina ; Lundh, Thomas ; Lundstrom, Nils-Goran ; Lyoussi, Badiaa ; Mazej, Darja ; Osredkar, Josko ; Pawlas, Krystyna ; Pawlas, Natalia ; Prokopowicz, Adam ; Rentschler, Gerda ; Spevackova, Vera ; Spiric, Zdravko ; Tratnik, Janja ; Skerfving, Staffan ; Bergdahl, Ingvar A. / Blood cadmium, mercury, and lead in children: An international comparison of cities in six European countries, and China, Ecuador, and Morocco. I: Environment International. 2012 ; Vol. 41. s. 29-34.

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Blood cadmium, mercury, and lead in children: An international comparison of cities in six European countries, and China, Ecuador, and Morocco

AU - Hruba, Frantiska

AU - Strömberg, Ulf

AU - Cerna, Milena

AU - Chen, Chunying

AU - Harari, Florencia

AU - Harari, Raul

AU - Horvat, Milena

AU - Koppova, Kvetoslava

AU - Kos, Andreja

AU - Krskova, Andrea

AU - Krsnik, Mladen

AU - Laamech, Jawhar

AU - Li, Yu-Feng

AU - Löfmark, Lina

AU - Lundh, Thomas

AU - Lundstrom, Nils-Goran

AU - Lyoussi, Badiaa

AU - Mazej, Darja

AU - Osredkar, Josko

AU - Pawlas, Krystyna

AU - Pawlas, Natalia

AU - Prokopowicz, Adam

AU - Rentschler, Gerda

AU - Spevackova, Vera

AU - Spiric, Zdravko

AU - Tratnik, Janja

AU - Skerfving, Staffan

AU - Bergdahl, Ingvar A.

PY - 2012

Y1 - 2012

N2 - Children's blood-lead concentration (B-Pb) is well studied, but little is known about cadmium (B-Cd) and mercury (B-Hg), in particular for central Europe. Such information is necessary for risk assessment and management. Therefore, we here describe and compare B-Pb, B-Cd and B-Hg in children in six European, and three non-European cities, and identify determinants of these exposures. About 50 school children (7-14 years) from each city were recruited (totally 433) in 2007-2008. Interview and questionnaire data were obtained. A blood sample was analyzed: only two laboratories with strict quality control were used. The European cities showed only minor differences for B-Cd (geometric means 0.11-0.17 mu g/L) and B-Pb (14-20 mu g/L), but larger for B-Hg (0.12-0.94 mu g/L). Corresponding means for the non-European countries were 0.21-0.26, 32-71, and 0.3-3.2 mu g/L, respectively. For B-Cd in European samples, traffic intensity close to home was a statistically significant determinant, for B-Hg fish consumption and amalgam fillings, and for B-Pb sex (boys higher). This study shows that European city children's B-Cd and B-Pb vary only little between countries; B-Hg differs considerably, due to varying tooth restoration practices and fish intake. Traffic intensity seemed to be a determinant for B-Cd. The metal concentrations were low from a risk perspective but the chosen non-European cities showed higher concentrations than the cities in Europe. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

AB - Children's blood-lead concentration (B-Pb) is well studied, but little is known about cadmium (B-Cd) and mercury (B-Hg), in particular for central Europe. Such information is necessary for risk assessment and management. Therefore, we here describe and compare B-Pb, B-Cd and B-Hg in children in six European, and three non-European cities, and identify determinants of these exposures. About 50 school children (7-14 years) from each city were recruited (totally 433) in 2007-2008. Interview and questionnaire data were obtained. A blood sample was analyzed: only two laboratories with strict quality control were used. The European cities showed only minor differences for B-Cd (geometric means 0.11-0.17 mu g/L) and B-Pb (14-20 mu g/L), but larger for B-Hg (0.12-0.94 mu g/L). Corresponding means for the non-European countries were 0.21-0.26, 32-71, and 0.3-3.2 mu g/L, respectively. For B-Cd in European samples, traffic intensity close to home was a statistically significant determinant, for B-Hg fish consumption and amalgam fillings, and for B-Pb sex (boys higher). This study shows that European city children's B-Cd and B-Pb vary only little between countries; B-Hg differs considerably, due to varying tooth restoration practices and fish intake. Traffic intensity seemed to be a determinant for B-Cd. The metal concentrations were low from a risk perspective but the chosen non-European cities showed higher concentrations than the cities in Europe. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

KW - Biomonitoring

KW - Exposure

KW - Children

KW - Lead

KW - Mercury

KW - Cadmium

U2 - 10.1016/j.envint.2011.12.001

DO - 10.1016/j.envint.2011.12.001

M3 - Article

VL - 41

SP - 29

EP - 34

JO - Environmental International

T2 - Environmental International

JF - Environmental International

SN - 1873-6750

ER -