Brominated Flame Retardants and Organophosphate Esters in Preschool Dust and Children's Hand Wipes

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Abstract

Children spend a considerable part of their day in preschool, where they may be exposed to hazardous chemicals in indoor dust. In this study, brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and organophosphate esters (OPEs) were analyzed in preschool dust (n = 100) and children's hand wipe samples (n = 100), and diphenyl phosphate (DPHP) was analyzed in urine (n = 113). Here we assessed children's exposure via dust, identified predictors for chemicals in dust, and studied correlations between different exposure measures. The most abundant BFRs in dust were decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) found at median levels of 270 and 110 ng/g dust, respectively. Tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) was the most abundant OPE, found at a median level of 79 000 ng/g dust. For all OPEs and some BFRs, there were significant correlations between the levels in dust and hand wipes. In addition, triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) in preschool dust was significantly correlated with the corresponding metabolite DPHP in children's urine. The levels of pentaBDEs in dust were higher in older preschools compared with newer, whereas levels of DBDPE were higher in newer preschools. Children's estimated intakes of individual BFRs and OPEs via preschool dust were below available health-based reference values. However, there are uncertainties about the potential health effects of some emerging BFRs and OPEs.

Detaljer

Författare
  • Kristin Larsson
  • Cynthia A. De Wit
  • Ulla Sellström
  • Leena Sahlström
  • Christian H. Lindh
  • Marika Berglund
Enheter & grupper
Externa organisationer
  • Karolinska Institute
  • Stockholms universitet
Forskningsområden

Ämnesklassifikation (UKÄ) – OBLIGATORISK

  • Miljömedicin och yrkesmedicin
Originalspråkengelska
Sidor (från-till)4878-4888
Antal sidor11
TidskriftEnvironmental Science and Technology
Volym52
Utgåva nummer8
StatusPublished - 2018 apr 17
PublikationskategoriForskning
Peer review utfördJa