Characterization of the human chemerin receptor - ChemR23/CMKLR1 - as co-receptor for human and simian immunodeficiency virus infection, and identification of virus-binding receptor domains.
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Studies were conducted to elucidate co-receptor spectrum and function of the inflammatory receptor, CMKLR1/ChemR23, which was recently identified as the receptor for the cystatin-like chemoattractant, TIG2, also named chemerin. An infection model was applied based on stably transfiected NP-2.CD4 host cells expressing various co-receptor constructs and exposed to panels of HIV-1, HIV-2 and SIV primary isolates. In a panel of 27 HIV-1 isolates tested, 12 isolates could use CMKLR1/ChemR23. As expected from a relatively high sequence homology with the extracellular domains of CCR3, HIV-1 isolates showing R3 tropism were particularly efficient in using CMKLR1/ChemR23. In addition, 5 out of 7 HIV-2 isolates and 13 out of 15 SIV (SMM-3 origin) used CMKLR1/ChemR23, in accordance with the previously documented ability of these isolates to use several co-receptors. In order to define important extracellular epitopes for the viral interaction, a hybrid receptor model was applied. This was based on the fact that the rat receptor, although structurally very similar to the human orthologue, was inefficient as viral co-receptor. When the rat receptor was "humanized" to include regions unique to the human receptor (N-terminus or second extracellular loop), exposure to HIV-1, HIV-2 and SIV isolates resulted in infection. The relative importance of the two critical receptor regions differed between HIV-1/HIV-2 on the one hand and SIV on the other. The results strongly support that the chemerin receptor, in the presence of CD4, functions as a "minor co-receptor" promoting infection by these classes of viruses. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
|Enheter & grupper|
Ämnesklassifikation (UKÄ) – OBLIGATORISK
|Utgåva nummer||Aug 9|
|Status||Published - 2006|
|Peer review utförd||Ja|