Characterizing gaze position signals and synthesizing noise during fixations in eye-tracking data

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The magnitude of variation in the gaze position signals recorded by an eye tracker, also known as its precision, is an important aspect of an eye tracker’s data quality. However, data quality of eye-tracking signals is still poorly understood. In this paper, we therefore investigate the following: (1) How do the various available measures characterizing eye-tracking data during fixation relate to each other? (2) How are they influenced by signal type? (3) What type of noise should be used to augment eye-tracking data when evaluating eye-movement analysis methods? To support our analysis, this paper presents new measures to characterize signal type and signal magnitude based on RMS-S2S and STD, two established measures of precision. Simulations are performed to investigate how each of these measures depends on the number of gaze position samples over which they are calculated, and to reveal how RMS-S2S and STD relate to each other and to measures characterizing the temporal spectrum composition of the recorded gaze position signal. Further empirical investigations were performed using gaze position data recorded with five eye trackers from human and artificial eyes. We found that although the examined eye trackers produce gaze position signals with different characteristics, the relations between precision measures derived from simulations are borne out by the data. We furthermore conclude that data with a range of signal type values should be used to assess the robustness of eye-movement analysis methods. We present a method for generating artificial eye-tracker noise of any signal type and magnitude.


Enheter & grupper
Externa organisationer
  • Siauliai University
  • University of the Free State
  • Nicolaus Copernicus University
  • University of Regensburg

Ämnesklassifikation (UKÄ) – OBLIGATORISK

  • Psykologi (exklusive tillämpad psykologi)


TidskriftBehavior Research Methods
StatusE-pub ahead of print - 2020 maj 29
Peer review utfördJa